Biological Molecules part 3

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  1. function of carbs
    • source of stored energy
    • carbon skeletons for many other molecules
  2. 4 categories of carbs
    • monosaccharides
    • disaccharides
    • oligosaccharides
    • polysaccharides
  3. monosaccharides
    simple sugars
  4. disaccharides
    2 simple sugars linked by covalent bonds
  5. oligosaccharides
    • 3 to 20 monosaccharides
    • may include other functional groups

    (page 74 on slide)
  6. polysaccharides
    • hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides - starch, glycogen, cellulose
    • giant polymers of monosaccharides
  7. All cells use __ as an energy source
    glucose (monosaccharide)
  8. Glucose has __ carbons - structural isomers.
    6: Hexose

    (page 70 on slide)
  9. Pentose
    5 carbons

    examples: Ribose & Deoxyribose

    (page 71 on slide)
  10. bond between 2 monomers of sugars
    glycosidic bond

    (page 72 on slide)
  11. Oligosaccharides are often covalently bonded to __ and act as __
    proteins & lipids on cell surfaces; recognition signals (sugar coats)
  12. Human blood groups get specificity from __ chains
    oligosaccharide
  13. starch
    • storage of glucose in plants
    • branched structure

    (page 76 & 77 on slide)
  14. glycogen
    • storage of glucose in animals
    • highly branched structure

    (page 76 & 77 on slide)
  15. cellulose
    • very stable, good for structural components
    • linear structure

    (page 76 & 77 on slide)
  16. functions of lipids
    • store energy
    • cell membranes (phospholipids)
    • steroids (hormones)
    • insulation
    • myelin (coats nerves)
    • oil & wax on skin, fur, & feathers repel water
  17. Lipids are characterized by __ bonds
    nonpolar covalent
  18. Fats tend to aggregate due to __ & are __
    van der Waal forces; hydrophobic
  19. Fats & oils are __ composed of __
    triglycerides (simple lipids); fatty acids & glycerol
  20. glycerol
    3 OH groups (an alcohol)
  21. fatty acid
    nonpolar hydrocarbon w/ a carboxyl group
  22. Carboxyls bond with hydroxyls of glycerol in an __ linkage
    ester

    (page 80 on slide)
  23. Lipids are __
    nonpolar hydrocarbons
  24. When sufficiently close together, weak but additive __ hold them together.
    van der Waal forces
  25. phospholipids
    fatty acids bound to glycerol; a phosphate group replaces one fatty acid
  26. The __ of phospholipids is hydrophilic and the __ are hydrophobic.
    • phosphate group "head"
    • fatty acid chains "tails"

    They are amphipathic: has both water-loving & fat-loving properties
  27. The hydrophilic head of a phospholipid is made up of a __ group & a __ group
    • choline (positive charge);
    • phosphate (negative charge)

    (page 83 on slide)
  28. The hydrophobic tail of a phospholipid is made up of __ & __
    glycerol; hydrocarbon chains

    (page 83 on slide)
  29. phospholipid bilayer
    In water, phospholipids line up with the hydrophobic "tails" together & the phosphate "heads" facing outward.

    Biological membranes have this kind of structure.

    (page 85 - 87 on slide)

Card Set Information

Author:
sophathida
ID:
323516
Filename:
Biological Molecules part 3
Updated:
2016-09-25 02:14:11
Tags:
biology carbs lipids
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Description:
Week 1: Ch 2, 3
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