nurs 101 ch 38

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  1. techniques used for cardiovascular assessments
    • inspection
    • palpation
    • auscultation
  2. what is the patient position while assessing cardiovascular?
    sitting position or in supine position with the head raised about 30 degrees

    the nurse is usually positioned at the right side of the patient
  3. how to assess peripheral vascular?
    measuring blood pressure and assessing skin and perfusion of the extremities and the peripheral pulses.

    assessment techniques are inspection and palpation, with the patient sitting or supine
  4. where to palpate the carotid artery?
    medial to the sternomastoid muscle in the neck between the jaw and the clavicle
  5. carotid artery normal findings:
    equal pulses bilaterally, with strength of +2/3.
  6. carotid artery abnormal findings:
    absent, weak, thready pulse(indicate decrease CO), a forceful or bounding pulse (seen in hypertension), and an asymmetric pulse (impaired circulation)
  7. precordium normal and abnormal findings:
    normal- no pulsation palpable over the aortic and pulmonic areas, with a palpable apical impulse.

    abnormal- precordial thrills, which are fine, palpable, rushing vibrations over the right of left second intercostal space, and lifts of heaves, which involve a rise along the border of the sternum with each heartbeat
  8. how to auscultate heart sounds?
    use systemic auscultation, beginning at the aortic area, moving to the pulmonic area, then to Erb's point, then tricuspid and finally to the mitral area
  9. abnormal heart sounds include:
    extra heart sound (s3, s4, murmus, bruits) at any of the cardiac landmarks and abnormal rate or rhythm.
  10. what can extra heart sounds indicate
    anemia or heart disease
  11. where to palpate peripheral pulses
    • carotid
    • brachial
    • radial
    • femoral
    • popliteal
    • dorsalis pedis
    • posterior tibial
  12. what can cause damage to blood vessels and nerves and can lead to ischemia
    • musculoskeletal trauma
    • crush injuries
    • orthopedic surgery
    • external pressure from an cast or tight-fitting bandage
  13. the  quantity of blood forced out of the left ventricle with each contraction
    Stroke Volume
  14. is the amount of blood pumped per minute
    cardiac output
  15. is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and tissue cells
    internal respiration
  16. a decrease in the amount of the RBC or erythrocytes, results in insufficient hemoglobin available to transport oxygen
  17. main blood vessels that supply blood to the heart
    right and left coronary arteries, which branch off the aorta
  18. is a disturbance of the rhythm of the heart, which may lead to impaired oxygenation
    dysrhythmia or arrhythmia
  19. cause of dysrhythmia
    abnormal rate of electrical impulse generation from the SA node. they can also be caused by the abnormal conduction of electrical impulses through the heart
  20. symptoms of dysrhytmia
    • decrease BP
    • dizziness
    • palpitations
    • weakness and fainting
  21. what is stable angina
    temporary imbalance between the the amount of oxygen needed by the heart and the amount delivered to the heart muscles.
  22. one type of acute coronary syndrome characterized by the death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen
    Myocardial Infraction
  23. myocardial ischemia sysptoms
    • pain
    • anxiety
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • indigestion
    • SOB
  24. heart failure symptoms
    • SOB
    • edema
    • fatigue
  25. indicate less than optimal oxygentation
    pallor(lack of color)
  26. indicates decrease blood flow or poor blood oxygenation
    cyanosis(bluish discoloration)
  27. frequently heard on inspiration, are soft, high-pitched discontinuous popping sounds.
  28. suggest aneurysm and arterial stenosis
  29. closure of mitral and tricuspid valve during systole
  30. closure of aortic and pulmonic during diastole
Card Set:
nurs 101 ch 38
2016-09-26 18:53:51

heart and neck assessment
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