physio 2

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  1. Describe the Central Nervous System CNS
    • Receive and process information
    • Send instructions to certain organs
    • Organs - Brain- Spinal cord
  2. Describe Peripheral Nervous System PNS
    • Provide communication between CNS and organs throughout the body Neurons
    • Afferent neurons (input) send info to brain 
    • Efferent neurons (output) from brain to rest of body
  3. The afferant neuron controls...
    Somatic, Special, and Visceral Senses
  4. Efferant Neurons control control...
    • Somatic:skeletal muscle 
    • Autonomic : sympathetic & parasympathetic
  5. The 5 Components of a neuron are:
    Image Upload 1
  6. Function of neuron
    Able to transmit electrical impulse
  7. Function of Glial Cells
    • Provide structural and metabolic support to neurons (4 tyes)
    • Astocytes
    • Microglia 
    • Oligodendrocytes (Myelin formation) 
    • schwann cells (Myelin formation)
  8. Define Synapse
    Site of communication between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector organ
  9. What are 3 types of Ion channels found in Neurons
    Image Upload 2
  10. How is resting potential generated in generation I K+?
    • Inside of a cell: High K+
    • K+ is diffusing OUT of the cell by chemical driving force through the leaky K+ channel
    • Electrical force builds up when K+ is moving OUT (cells become more negative)
    • Equilibrium is reached when Chemical force = Electrical force (OR Electrochemical force = 0)
  11. Resting potential is reached at
  12. Define: Oligodendrocyes
    • –Central nervous system–
    • One oligodendrocyte:
    • Forms several myelin sheaths
    • Myelinates sections of several axons
  13. Define Schwann cells
    • –Peripheral nervous system–
    • One Schwann cell:
    • Forms one myelin sheath
    • Myelinates one section of an axon
  14. How is resting potential generated in generation II Na+?
    • Outside of a cell: High Na+
    • Na+ is diffusing IN of the cell by chemical driving force through the leaky Na+ channel
    • Electrical force builds up when Na+ is moving IN (cells become more Positive)
    • Equilibrium is reached when Chemical force = Electrical force (OR Electrochemical force = 0)
  15. How is resting potential generated in Generation III?
    • In cells, there are more leaky K+ channels than Na+ channels
    • More K+ leaves the cell than Na+ enters
    • Inside of the cell becomes negative: K+ out will slow down, Na+ in will be faster
    • Eventually inflow of Na+ is balanced by outflow of K+
    • Resting membrane potential = –70 mV
  16. Characteristics of Na+/K+ pump
    • 20% due to Na+/K+-ATPase (3Na+out,2K+in)
    • 80% is indirectly due to Na+/K+-ATPase 
    • The main reason for resting potential id due to Leaky Ion channels 
    • Due to uneven distribution of ions
  17. Graded Potential characteristics
    • ↑Stimulus ↑ Response
    • Decremental property ↑Distance traveled  ↓Response
    • Summation property Stimulus can be added
    • Threshold Stimulus > Threshold generates Action potential
  18. Define Hyperpolarizing
    • also know as Inhibitory effect 
    • Membrane potential becomes more negative (drops)
    • K+ ligand gated channels open, K+ gets outside the cell
    •  Further away from Activation energy
  19. Define Depolarizing
    • Also known as Excitatory effect 
    • Membrane potential becomes more positive (increases)
    • Na+ ligand gated channels open, Na+ getsinside the cell
    • Closer to activation energy
  20. How is Action Potential generated?
    Graded potentials trigger action potential when they depolarize a neuron to a certain level (Threshold).
  21. What are the 3 phases of action potential?
    Image Upload 3
  22. Name 2 gates in the voltage gated sodium channel
    • Activation gate Voltage dependent
    • Opens at threshold and depolarization
    • Inactivation gate Voltage and time dependent
    • Opens during depolarization
    • Closes 1 msec after the initialstimulus
  23. 2 types of refractory periods
    Image Upload 4
  24. Why is neuron transduction one direction only?
    Due to refractory period
  25. Difference between Action and Graded potentials
    Image Upload 5
Card Set:
physio 2
2016-09-28 21:19:15
Physio test 2
chptr seven
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