Nervous System Part 1

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user haitianwifey on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. What are some of the functions of the nervous system
    • causes muscles to contract resulting in facial expressions
    • stimulates glands to secrete and
    • allows sensation to be perceived, such as pain and touch
  2. What are the two main divisions of the nervous system
    • Central nervous system
    • Peripheral nervous system
  3. The central nervous system contains the
    brain and spinal cord
  4. _________is the cellular component of the nervous system
    The neuron
  5. The neuron is composed of a ____ and ____
    • cell body
    • neural processes (axons and dendrites)
  6. The _____ is located outside of the central nervous system
    nerve
  7. What is a synapse
    the junction between two neurons (nerve cells) or between a neuron and an effector organ
  8. innervation
    a supply of nerves to the body part
  9. ganglion
    An accumulation of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system
  10. What are the two types of nerves
    • afferent
    • efferent
  11. What is an afferent (sensory) nerve
    • carries information from the periphery of the body to the brain (or spinal cord)
    • such as taste, pain, and proprioception
  12. What is an efferent (motor) nerve
    • carries information away from the brain (or spinal cord) to the periphery of the body
    • such as carrying information to the muscles in order to activate them
  13. In neurons (nerve cells), the fluid outside of the cell membrane has a _______ charge
    positive
  14. In neurons the fluid inside the cell membrane has a _____ charge
    negative
  15. The charge difference between the fluid outside and inside of the cell membrane is called
    resting potential
  16. An action potential is
    a temporary reversal of the electric potential along the cell membrane for a brief period
  17. The action potential creates _____
    electric messages
  18. A brief period during which the membrane cannot be stimulated
    refractory period
  19. What are NEUROTRANSMITTERS
    These are chemical agents that are released by the neuron
  20. The CNS is surrounded by a system of membranes called
    • meninges
    • The pad between the brain and the bone
  21. What are the three layers of the meninges
    • ˜dura mater
    • ˜arachnoid mater˜
    • pia mater
  22. The major divisions of the brain include
    • ˜the brainstem˜ 
    • the cerebrum˜
    • the cerebellum
    • ˜the diencephalon
  23. The largest division of the brain consists of two cerebral hemispheres
    The cerebrum
  24. The second largest division of the brain, after the cerebrum
    The cerebellum
  25. What are the three divisions of the brainstem
    • ˜medulla˜
    • pons
    • ˜midbrain
  26. What are the two regions of the diencephalon
    • the thalamus
    • and hypothalamus
  27. What is the function of the thalamus
    serves as a central relay point for incoming nerve impulses
  28. What is the function of the hypothalamus
    maintains homeostasis
  29. ________ is composed of all the nerves stretching their pathways among the CNS and receptors, muscles, and glands
    The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  30. The efferent division of the PNS is further subdivided into_______ and ______
    • somatic nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system
  31. The somatic nervous system (SNS), also called the 
    voluntary nervous system
  32. The somatic nervous system includes
    all nerves controlling the muscular system and external sensory receptors
  33. The SNS involves both
    • receptors
    • effectors
  34. What are receptors
    the external sense organs, including skin
  35. What are effectors
    ˜muscle fibers, gland cells
  36. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is also called the
    involuntary nervous system
  37. What are the two subdivisions of the ANS
    • sympathetic
    • parasympathetic
  38. The sympathetic nervous system is involved in what kind of responses
    • fight-or-flight responses
    • Controls organs in times of stress
  39. The parasympathetic nervous system is involved in what kind of responses
    • “rest-or-digest” responses
    • Controls organs in times of rest
  40. There are _____ cranial nerves and they are all ____
    • 12
    • paired
  41. The first cranial nerve is also called
    olfactory nerve
  42. The olfactory nerve functions as a ______ nerve
    afferent
  43. The second cranial nerve is also called the
    optic nerve
  44. What is the function of the optic nerve and what kind of nerve does it function as
    • transmits sight from the retina of the eye to the brain
    • functions as an afferent nerve
  45. The third cranial nerve is also called the
    oculomotor nerve
  46. What is the function of the oculomotor nerve and what kind of nerve does it function as
    serves as an efferent nerve to some of the eye muscles that move the eyeball
  47. The fourth cranial nerve is also known as the
    trochlear nerve
  48. Which of the cranial nerves is the smallest
    trochlear
  49. The fifth cranial nerve is also known as the
    trigeminal nerve
  50. What kind of nerve does the trigeminal nerve function as
    both an efferent component for the muscles of mastication, as well as some other cranial muscles, and an afferent component for the teeth, tongue, and oral cavity, as well as most of the skin of the face and head
  51. Which of the cranial nerves are the largest
    trigeminal
  52. What are the two roots of the trigeminal nerve
    • sensory
    • motor
  53. What are the three nerve divisions of the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve
    • ophthalmic
    • maxillary
    • and mandibular
  54. What is the function of the ophthalmic nerve
    provides sensation to the upper face and scalp
  55. What is the function of the maxillary and mandibular nerves
    sensation to the middle and lower face, respectively
  56. The nerve divisions of the sensory root enters the skull in the _______ bone
    sphenoid
  57. The ophthalmic nerve or division enters through the
    superior orbital fissure
  58. The maxillary nerve or division enters by way of the
    foramen rotundum
  59. The mandibular nerve or division passes through the skull by way of the
    foramen ovale
  60. The ______ root of the trigeminal nerve accompanies the ______ nerve of the sensory root and also exits the skull through the ______
    • motor
    • mandibular
    • foramen ovale
  61. The _______  is the most important cranial nerve to the dental professional
    trigeminal nerve
  62. The sixth cranial nerve is also known as
    abducens nerve
  63. What is the function of the abducens nerve and what kind of nerve does it function as
    serves as an efferent nerve to one of the muscles that moves the eyeball
  64. The seventh cranial nerve is also known as
    facial nerve
  65. What kind on nerve does the facial nerve function as
    an efferent component for the muscles of facial expression and for the lacrimal gland as well as the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands
  66. The facial nerve leaves the cranial cavity by passing through the
    internal acoustic meatus
  67. The facial nerve exits the skull by way of the
    stylomastoid foramen of the temporal bone
  68. What is the function of the facial nerve
    it innervates relevant tissue of the head and neck and travels through the parotid gland
  69. The eight cranial nerve is also known as
    vestibulocochlear nerve
  70. What is the function of the vestibulocochlear nerve and what kind of nerve does it function as
    • serves as an afferent nerve for hearing and balance
    • conveys signals from the inner ear to the brain
  71. The ninth cranial nerve is also known as
    glossopharyngeal nerve
  72. What king of nerve does the glossopharyngeal nerve function as
    efferent and afferent
  73. What structures does the efferent function of the glossopharyngeal nerve serve
    the pharyngeal muscle, the stylopharyngeus muscle, and parasympathetic innervation for the parotid salivary gland
  74. What is the afferent function of the glossopharyngeal nerve
    carries an afferent component for the oropharynx and for taste and general sensation from the base of the tongue, and thus is the afferent limb of the gag reflex
  75. The glossopharyngeal nerve passes through the skull by way of the ______
    jugular foramen
  76. The tenth cranial nerve is also known as the
    vagus nerve
  77. What kind of nerve does the vagus nerve function as
    efferent and afferent
  78. The efferent component of the vagus nerve functions for
    the muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx and for parasympathetic fibers to many organs in the thorax and abdomen including the thymus gland, heart, and stomach
  79. The afferent component of the vagus nerve function for
    a small amount of skin around the ear and for taste sensation for the epiglottis
  80. The vagus nerve passes through the skull by way
    of the jugular foramen
  81. The _______ nerve is the longest cranial nerve
    vagus
  82. The eleventh cranial nerve is also known as the
    accessory nerve
  83. The accessory nerve functions as what kind of nerve
    efferent nerve for the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles as well as for muscles of the soft palate and pharynx
  84. The accessory nerve exits the skull through the
    jugular foramen
  85. What nerves are important to dental professionals because it innervates relevant tissue of the head and neck
    • V
    • VII
    • X
    • XI
  86. The twelfth cranial nerve is also known as the
    hypoglossal nerve
  87. The hypoglossal nerve is important to dental professionals because it
    innervates the tongue
  88. What kind of nerve function does the hypoglossal nerve function for
    an efferent nerve for both the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue
  89. The hypoglossal nerve exits the skull through the
    hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone

Card Set Information

Author:
haitianwifey
ID:
323690
Filename:
Nervous System Part 1
Updated:
2016-09-26 19:38:23
Tags:
Nervous System Part
Folders:
Dental anatomy
Description:
Nervous System Part 1
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview