FON241-Lesson 10

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JenKess
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32375
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FON241-Lesson 10
Updated:
2010-09-02 00:06:59
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Human Nutrition
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Final Exam Review
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  1. The six functions of water in the body include
    • 1. Carries nutrients and waste products through the body
    • 2. Maintains structure of large molecules such as proteins and glycogen
    • 3. Participates in metabolic reactions
    • 4. Serves as the solvent or minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose, and many other small molecules so that they can participate in metabolic activity
    • 5. Acts as a lubricant and cushion around joints and inside the eyes, the spinal cord, and, in pregnancy, the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus in the womb
    • 6. Aids in the regulation of normal body temperature and maintains blood volume
  2. The body generates water during the
    breakdown of energy nutrients
  3. Regulation of fluid an electrolyte balance and acid-base balance depends primarily on the
    Kidneys
  4. The distinction between the major and trace minerals reflects the
    Amounts of their contents in the body
  5. The principle cation in extracellular fluids is
    Sodium
  6. The role of chloride in the stomach is to help
    Maintain strong acidity
  7. Which would provide the most potassium
    Whole-wheat bread
  8. Calcium homeostasis depends on
    Vitamin K, parathyroid hormone, and renin
  9. Calcium absorption is hindered by
    Oxalates
  10. Phosphorous assists in many activities in the body, but not
    The clotting of blood
  11. Most of the body's magnesium can be found in the
    Bones
  12. Which mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
    Sodium
  13. Which mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and is part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach and also necessary for proper digestion?
    Chloride
  14. Which mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and facilitates many reaction including supporting cell integrity and assisting in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions?
    Potassium
  15. What mineral is known for the mineralization of bones and teeth and also involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting and blood pressure?
    Calcium
  16. What mineral in known for mineralization of bones and teeth, part of every cell and important in genetic material, part of phospholipids and used in energy transfer and in buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance?
    Phosphorous
  17. What mineral is known for bone mineralization, building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of teeth and functioning of the immune system?
    Magnesium
  18. What minerals chief function is being part of proteins, stabilizing their shape by forming disulfide bridges and part of the vitamins biotin and thiamin and the hormone insulin?
    Sulfate
  19. Muscle cramps, mental apathy and loss of appetite are al deficiency symptoms of
    Sodium
  20. Irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness and glucose intolerance are deficiency symptoms of
    Potassium
  21. Stunted growth in children and bone loss in older adults are deficiency symptoms of
    Calcium
  22. Muscular weakness and bone pain are deficiency symptoms of
    Phosphorous
  23. Weakness, confusion; and if extreme, convulsions, bizarre muscle movements, hallucinations, and difficulty in swallowing and in children growth failure are all deficiency symptoms of
    Magnesium
  24. Table salt, soy sauce, moderate amounts of meats, milks, breads, and vegetables, and large amounts of processed foods are all good sources of
    Sodium
  25. Table salt, soy sauce, moderate amounts of meats, milk, and eggs along with large amounts of processed foods are good sources of
    Chloride
  26. All whole foods, meats, milks, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes are all good sources of
    Potassium
  27. Milk, milk products, small fist, tofu, greens (bok choy, broccoli, chard), and legumes are all good sources of
    Calcium
  28. All animal tissues (meat, fish, poultry, fish, and eggs) are all good sources of
    Phosphorous
  29. Nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, seafood, chocolate, and cocoa are all good sources of
    Magnesium
  30. All protein-containing foods (meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, legumes, and nuts) are all good sources of
    Sulfate
  31. Edema and acute hypertension are toxicity symptoms of
    Sodium
  32. Vomiting is a toxicity symptom of
    Chloride
  33. Muscular weakness and vomiting are toxicity symptoms of
    Potassium, if given into a vein, the heart can stop
  34. Constipation, increased risk of urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction along with the interference of other minerals are toxicity symptoms of
    Calcium
  35. Calcification of nonskeletal tissues, particularly the kidneys is a toxicity symptom of
    Phosphorous
  36. Diarrhea, alkalosis and dehydration are toxicity symptoms of
    Magnesium; non-food sources
  37. Iron absorption is impaired by
    Phytates
  38. Which of these people is least likely to develop an iron deficiency?
    52 year old man
  39. Which of the following would not describe the blood cells of a severe iron deficiency?
    Pernicious
  40. Which provides the most absorbable iron?
    3 oz steak
  41. The intestinal protein that helps to regulate zinc absorption is
    Metallothionein
  42. A classic sign of zinc deficiency is
    Growth retardation
  43. Cretinism is caused by a deficiency of
    Iodine
  44. The mineral best known for its role as an antioxidant is
    Selenium
  45. Fluorosis occurs when fluoride
    Is excessive
  46. Which mineral enhances insulin activity?
    Chromium
  47. What mineral is part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the blood, part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction and necessary for energy metabolism
    Iron
  48. What mineral is part of insulin and many enzymes, involved in making genetic material and proteins, immune reactions, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing. the making of sperm and normal fetal development
    Zinc
  49. What mineral is a component of the thyroid hormones that help to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
    Iodine
  50. What mineral is part of an enzyme that defends against oxidation and regulates the thyroid hormone
    Selenium
  51. What mineral helps form hemoglobin and part of several enzymes
    Copper
  52. What mineral is the cofactor for several enzymes and bone formation
    Manganese
  53. What mineral maintains health of bones and teeth and confers decay resistance on teeth
    Fluoride
  54. What mineral enhances insulin action and may improve glucose intolerance
    Chromium
  55. What mineral is the cofactor for several enzymes and found in legumes, cereal, and nuts?
    Molybdenum
  56. Anemia, weakness, fatigue, headaches, impaired work performance, impaired immunity, pale skin, nail beds, mucous membranes and palm creases, concave nails, inability to regulate body temperature and pica are all deficiency symptoms of
    Iron
  57. Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, impaired immune function, hair loss, eye and skin lesions along with loss of appetite are deficiency symptoms of
    Zinc
  58. Under-active thyroid gland, goiter, mental and physical retardation (cretinism) are deficiency symptoms of
    Iodine
  59. What mineral is associated with Keshan disease?
    Selenium
  60. Anemia and bone abnormalities are deficiency symptoms of
    Copper
  61. Susceptibility to tooth decay is a deficiency symptom of
    Fluoride
  62. A deficiency of chromium is a
    Diabetes-like condition
  63. Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes and dried fruits are all significant sources of
    Iron
  64. Protein-containing foods; red meats, fish, shellfish, poultry, whole grains, and fortified cereals are all good sources of
    Zinc
  65. Iodized salt, seafood, plants grown in iodine-rich soil and animals fed those plants are good sources of
    Iodine
  66. Seafoods, organ meats, other meats, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of
    Selenium
  67. Seafood, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and seeds are good sources of
    Copper
  68. Nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables, and tea and good sources of
    Manganese
  69. Drinking water, tea, and seafood are good sources of
    Fluoride
  70. Meats, liver, whole grain, brewer's yeast are good sources of
    Chromium
  71. Legumes, cereals, and nuts are good sources of
    Molybdenum
  72. Fluorosis (discoloration of teeth) is a toxicity symptom of
    Fluoride
  73. Nervous symptom disorder is a toxicity symptom of
    Manganese
  74. Liver damage is a toxicity symptom of
    Copper
  75. Nail and hair brittleness and loss, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system disorders, skin rash, and garlic breath odor are toxicity symptoms of
    Selenium
  76. Under-active thyroid gland, elevated TSH, and goiter and toxicity symptoms of
    Iodine
  77. Loss of appetite, impaired immunity, low HDL, copper and iron deficiencies are toxicity symptoms of
    Zinc
  78. GI distress, iron, overload, infections, fatigue, joint pain, skin pigmentation, and organ damage are toxicity symptoms of
    Iron
  79. Iron found in foods derived from the flesh of animals; meats, poultry, and fish
    Heme Iron
  80. Iron found in both plant-derived and animal-derived foods
    Nonheme Iron
  81. The state of having depleted iron stores
    Iron deficiency
  82. High risk for iron deficiency
    • 1. Women in their reproductive years
    • 2. Pregnant women
    • 3. Infants and young children
    • 4. Teenagers
  83. Iron deficiency anemia
    Serve depletion of iron stores that result in low hemoglobin and small, pale red blood cells
  84. Absorption-enhancing Factors of Iron
    Vitamin C, MFP factor, and some acids and sugars
  85. What maintains the blood volume, which in turn influences blood pressure?
    Fluids
  86. In response to low blood volume, low blood pressure, or highly concentrated body fluids, in order to restore homeostasis what 4 actions take place?
    • 1. ADH retains water
    • 2. Renin retains sodium
    • 3. Angiotensin constricts blood vessels
    • 4. Aldosterone retains sodium
    • * only if a person drinks enough water

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