1. Carries nutrients and waste products through the body
2. Maintains structure of large molecules such as proteins and glycogen
3. Participates in metabolic reactions
4. Serves as the solvent or minerals, vitamins, amino acids, glucose, and many other small molecules so that they can participate in metabolic activity
5. Acts as a lubricant and cushion around joints and inside the eyes, the spinal cord, and, in pregnancy, the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus in the womb
6. Aids in the regulation of normal body temperature and maintains blood volume
The body generates water during the
breakdown of energy nutrients
Regulation of fluid an electrolyte balance and acid-base balance depends primarily on the
The distinction between the major and trace minerals reflects the
Amounts of their contents in the body
The principle cation in extracellular fluids is
The role of chloride in the stomach is to help
Maintain strong acidity
Which would provide the most potassium
Calcium homeostasis depends on
Vitamin K, parathyroid hormone, and renin
Calcium absorption is hindered by
Phosphorous assists in many activities in the body, but not
The clotting of blood
Most of the body's magnesium can be found in the
Which mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and assists in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction
Which mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and is part of hydrochloric acid found in the stomach and also necessary for proper digestion?
Which mineral maintains normal fluid and electrolyte balance and facilitates many reaction including supporting cell integrity and assisting in nerve impulse transmission and muscle contractions?
What mineral is known for the mineralization of bones and teeth and also involved in muscle contraction and relaxation, nerve functioning, blood clotting and blood pressure?
What mineral in known for mineralization of bones and teeth, part of every cell and important in genetic material, part of phospholipids and used in energy transfer and in buffer systems that maintain acid-base balance?
What mineral is known for bone mineralization, building of protein, enzyme action, normal muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of teeth and functioning of the immune system?
What minerals chief function is being part of proteins, stabilizing their shape by forming disulfide bridges and part of the vitamins biotin and thiamin and the hormone insulin?
Muscle cramps, mental apathy and loss of appetite are al deficiency symptoms of
Irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness and glucose intolerance are deficiency symptoms of
Stunted growth in children and bone loss in older adults are deficiency symptoms of
Muscular weakness and bone pain are deficiency symptoms of
Weakness, confusion; and if extreme, convulsions, bizarre muscle movements, hallucinations, and difficulty in swallowing and in children growth failure are all deficiency symptoms of
Table salt, soy sauce, moderate amounts of meats, milks, breads, and vegetables, and large amounts of processed foods are all good sources of
Table salt, soy sauce, moderate amounts of meats, milk, and eggs along with large amounts of processed foods are good sources of
All whole foods, meats, milks, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes are all good sources of
Milk, milk products, small fist, tofu, greens (bok choy, broccoli, chard), and legumes are all good sources of
All animal tissues (meat, fish, poultry, fish, and eggs) are all good sources of
Nuts, legumes, whole grains, dark green vegetables, seafood, chocolate, and cocoa are all good sources of
All protein-containing foods (meats, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, legumes, and nuts) are all good sources of
Edema and acute hypertension are toxicity symptoms of
Vomiting is a toxicity symptom of
Muscular weakness and vomiting are toxicity symptoms of
Potassium, if given into a vein, the heart can stop
Constipation, increased risk of urinary stone formation and kidney dysfunction along with the interference of other minerals are toxicity symptoms of
Calcification of nonskeletal tissues, particularly the kidneys is a toxicity symptom of
Diarrhea, alkalosis and dehydration are toxicity symptoms of
Magnesium; non-food sources
Iron absorption is impaired by
Which of these people is least likely to develop an iron deficiency?
52 year old man
Which of the following would not describe the blood cells of a severe iron deficiency?
Which provides the most absorbable iron?
3 oz steak
The intestinal protein that helps to regulate zinc absorption is
A classic sign of zinc deficiency is
Cretinism is caused by a deficiency of
The mineral best known for its role as an antioxidant is
Fluorosis occurs when fluoride
Which mineral enhances insulin activity?
What mineral is part of the protein hemoglobin, which carries oxygen to the blood, part of the protein myoglobin in muscles, which makes oxygen available for muscle contraction and necessary for energy metabolism
What mineral is part of insulin and many enzymes, involved in making genetic material and proteins, immune reactions, transport of vitamin A, taste perception, wound healing. the making of sperm and normal fetal development
What mineral is a component of the thyroid hormones that help to regulate growth, development, and metabolic rate
What mineral is part of an enzyme that defends against oxidation and regulates the thyroid hormone
What mineral helps form hemoglobin and part of several enzymes
What mineral is the cofactor for several enzymes and bone formation
What mineral maintains health of bones and teeth and confers decay resistance on teeth
What mineral enhances insulin action and may improve glucose intolerance
What mineral is the cofactor for several enzymes and found in legumes, cereal, and nuts?
Anemia, weakness, fatigue, headaches, impaired work performance, impaired immunity, pale skin, nail beds, mucous membranes and palm creases, concave nails, inability to regulate body temperature and pica are all deficiency symptoms of
Growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, impaired immune function, hair loss, eye and skin lesions along with loss of appetite are deficiency symptoms of
Under-active thyroid gland, goiter, mental and physical retardation (cretinism) are deficiency symptoms of
What mineral is associated with Keshan disease?
Anemia and bone abnormalities are deficiency symptoms of
Susceptibility to tooth decay is a deficiency symptom of
A deficiency of chromium is a
Red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes and dried fruits are all significant sources of
Protein-containing foods; red meats, fish, shellfish, poultry, whole grains, and fortified cereals are all good sources of
Iodized salt, seafood, plants grown in iodine-rich soil and animals fed those plants are good sources of
Seafoods, organ meats, other meats, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of
Seafood, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and seeds are good sources of
Nuts, whole grains, leafy vegetables, and tea and good sources of
Drinking water, tea, and seafood are good sources of
Meats, liver, whole grain, brewer's yeast are good sources of
Legumes, cereals, and nuts are good sources of
Fluorosis (discoloration of teeth) is a toxicity symptom of
Nervous symptom disorder is a toxicity symptom of
Liver damage is a toxicity symptom of
Nail and hair brittleness and loss, fatigue, irritability, and nervous system disorders, skin rash, and garlic breath odor are toxicity symptoms of
Under-active thyroid gland, elevated TSH, and goiter and toxicity symptoms of
Loss of appetite, impaired immunity, low HDL, copper and iron deficiencies are toxicity symptoms of
GI distress, iron, overload, infections, fatigue, joint pain, skin pigmentation, and organ damage are toxicity symptoms of
Iron found in foods derived from the flesh of animals; meats, poultry, and fish
Iron found in both plant-derived and animal-derived foods
The state of having depleted iron stores
High risk for iron deficiency
1. Women in their reproductive years
2. Pregnant women
3. Infants and young children
Iron deficiency anemia
Serve depletion of iron stores that result in low hemoglobin and small, pale red blood cells
Absorption-enhancing Factors of Iron
Vitamin C, MFP factor, and some acids and sugars
What maintains the blood volume, which in turn influences blood pressure?
In response to low blood volume, low blood pressure, or highly concentrated body fluids, in order to restore homeostasis what 4 actions take place?