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Fields of anthropology and description.
- Biological/Physical: focus on physical form, biological aspects
- Archaeology: how humans shape their material environment, material remains, prehistory
- Linguistic: humans have unique communication systems, covers all forms of communication within cultures and subcultures
- Cultural: humans act according to learned knowledge systems. seek to understand different groups and societies
A set of learned ideas and behaviours that are characteristics of a particular society or other social groups
All cultures change and the impetuous for change can be external or internal
Examples of cultural change
- political and social
- globalization- money, goods, people, ideas
- ethnogenisis (creation of new cultures)
Anthropology and the general approach
- the study of humans past and present. to study the full sweep and complexity of cultures across all of human history. ethnography is the approach
- observation -> formation -> deduction
- post-modernistic critique, objectivity isn't possible there's always a bias.
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881)
- Founder of scientific anthropology. believed in kinship systems.
- promiscuity -> hard living -> monogamy/tradition -> culture
Edward Tylor (1832-1917)
- culture is learned. focused on primitive culture.
- savagery -> barbarism -> civilization -> culture
Franz Boas (1858-1942)
- scientific approach
- historic particularism*
- salvage anthropologist
- a culture is a contextualized manifestation of the human capacity for culture
Father of modern american cultural anthropology. studied geography and psychophysics. Jew. kulturbrille, "cultural glasses" - lenses provide us with a means for perceiving the world around us
Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941)
- Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: language determines how we see the world.
- Linguistic Relativism
Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942)
- coined the term "Participant Observation."
- approach was "functionalism."
- interested in systems of exchange.
- functions had to do with "doctrine of needs"
- Polish anthropologist.
- Trobriand Islands.
- approach was "structural functionalism"
- saw anthropology as "comparative sociology"
- interested in social structure, structural "problems" such as avoidance/joking relationships.
learning a new culture and adapting, it is not your own. can be forced.
process by learning your own culture. (kids learn by growing up)
understanding things from the context from which they emerged. understanding the context and history
the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
refers to the whole of society, the broader context. takes everything into account.
- putting anthropology into practice for contemporary practical means. anthropology in everyday life.
- ex. healthcare, mapping,immigration services, policy, government etc
study and record cultures threatened by westernization. all-encompassing.
- focus on a particular thing
- any group of people have to be understood within their own historical trajectory/ context and history. they need to understand language, culture, history etc.
- organized life in groups. a nation.
- society IS NOT the same as culture
- focus on hard outcomes, often numeric
- reliability, validity, generaliability
- focus on content, not numeric
- trustworthiness, rigor, transferability
Explanation vs. interpretation
- explanation: true. aims to explain a phenomenon.
- interpretation: what you think is true. aims to offer a possible reason behind a phenomenon.
- how organisms cope with the topography of the land and the environmental forces.
- 1) can adapt culturally
- 2) can adapt biologically- genetic, long term/short term physiological
Association vs. Theory
- association: where 2+ variables tend to be related in a predictable way. observable. occurs often. can be cross cultural.
- theory: explains why laws exist.cannot be proven as fact with absolute certainty. scientists form theories to explain why things are the way they are.
product and process of understanding what people are up to based on observations and intereactions. purpose is to understand the whole culture. uses participant observation by "doing-what-is-done"
Direct Constraint vs. Indirect Constraint
- Direct: things you DO NOT do. it's a law. (ex. don't be naked in school)
- Indirect: things you SHOULDN'T do. someone does something, others may follow. (ex. wearing pjs in class)
The tendency to view one's own culture as superior
Open Language Systems vs. Closed Language Systems
- open: can expand, have options. human languages are open.
- closed: no options, it's concrete. ex. vervet monkeys
- process by which cultural elements are borrowed from another society and incorporated into the culture of a recipient group.
- patterns of diffusion can be direct, indirect, forced or stimulus -> (there's an idea, you make your own version.
Ideal Culture vs. Real Culture
- actual behaviour IS NOT ideal behaviour
- marriage vs. divorce
question of the individual vs. the group
Behaviours and Traits
- learned: we follow the ways of others
- biological: babies depending on their mothers
- universal: throughout all cultures. ex. religion
- generality: not the same in every culture, but there is some form of unity. common. ex. cleanliness rituals, family structure/kinship.
- particularity: local. specific to one culture. ex. festivals.
Biological Responses to Climate. Bergmann's Rule, Allen's Rule
- Bergmann: relationship b/w body size and temperature. larger mass in colder areas
- Allen: protruding body parts are shorter in colder areas
Invention vs. Discovery
- invention: new application to knowledge. international is when society itself sets a specific goal. unconscious can be a series of developments accumulating in one larger new idea.
- Discovery: brand new addition to knowledge
American approach vs. European approach
- American/four field: comparative approach
- European: functionalist approach
who's related to who, who's descended from who
- replacement of a country's ruler
- often violent
- there's meaning even when the referent isn't there
- meaning is arbitrary/random
study of communication by non-verbal means
- optional vocal features or silences that communicate meaning.
- ex. pictures, music, tattoos etc.
nobody speaks it as a mother tongue/first language (ex. Latin)
the language you learn when you are very young. first language, 4 is usually the cutoff to learn it
trading languages based on economic trades ("How much?"). Simple between 2 groups who don't know a common language
- when a child learns the pigin as a mother tongue. more complex than a pigin, it's a mish mash of the languages
- pigin -> mother tongue = creole
- speech sounds. (c,ah,t,s)
- 20-100 in any language
- it's a sound contrast that makes a difference
- meaningful units/words. (cat(s))
- 1000-10 000 in any language
- arranging words in phrases. sentences.
- there's an infinite amount of possibilities
Isolation vs. Contract in Linguistic Divergence
- Isolation- divergence between speech communities
- Contract- greater resemblance between speech communities
differences in phonology, morphology and syntax. not great enough to produce unintelligibility
- comes from the same origin
- root branches into tree
- ex. French and Spanish
linguists and anthropologists are interested in what people DO say rather than what they SHOULD say
- 5000-6000 years old
- can only represent some of the features of the spoken language
- interpretation is separate
- photographic -> syllabic
- pictogram -> ideogram -> phonogram -> syllabic -> alphapets
- there's a tendency toward an increase in abstractness and simplicity
- some systems co exist
organization of the sounds which are meaningful in a given language
International Phonetic Alphabet
created to document and study oral languages and to accurately represent pronounciation
George Bernard Shaw
- -"gh" in "laugh"
- -"o" in "women"
- -"ti" in "nation"
the study of the internal structure of words and of the interrelationships of morphemes
- conversion: ex. noun to verb. actual word doesn't change
- derivation: shock -> shocking
- inflection: prefix/suffix
- reduplication: "like like"
- backformation: getting rid of the suffix/prefix to make a "new" word
- borrowing: adopting words from another language into your language
- acronyms: "LOL"
- compounds: ex. proof-reading
- coining: making new words
- blend: breakfast + lunch = brunch
- the way words and punctuation are used and arranged to form phrases and sentences
- sytanx ambiguities occur when there are different possible meanings of a sentence because it was worded incorrectly. ex. "The French history teacher"