Chapter 6 and 2

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  1. When a person is maintaining weight, energy in is ______ to energy out.
  2. Excess energy from alcohol is stored as . . .
  3. Alcohol is known to _____ the body's use of fat for fuel.
    Slow down
  4. The fat cells of the adipose tissue shrink as they are filled with fat.
    T or F
    False, they enlarge
  5. Surplus carbs (glucose) is first stored as _______ in the _______ and ________.
    • Glycogen
    • Liver 
    • Muscles
  6. Fat from food is routed to the body's ______ tissue.
  7. Once the glycogen stores are filled, excess glucose is converted to ______..
  8. Although the body posseses enzymes to convert excess protein to body fat, this process is far _____ effective than converting excess carbs, and especially excess fat, to body fat.
  9. Too much _____, too little ______., or both encourage body fat accumulation.
    • Food
    • Physical Activites
  10. A net excess of energy is almost all stored where in the body?
    The adipose tissue
  11. Once ______ stores are filled, excess carbs may be converted to fat or used for energy
  12. The cellular work, which maintains all life processes, represents _____ of the total energy a sedentary person expends in a day.
  13. If a person voluntarily chooses not to eat, it is called?
    If it is done involuntarily, it is called?
    • Fasting 
    • Starving
  14. Metabolically, fasting and starving are different.

    T or F
    False, they are metabolically the same.
  15. Within a _____, liver glycogen is exhausted, and most of the glucose is used up.
  16. What type of concentration of blood glucose serves as a signal to promote further fat breakdown.
    Low blood concentration
  17. Low blood concentrations serves to promote . . .
    Further fat breakdown
  18. Ketone bodies are created in response to?
    An expenditure of glycogen stores, leading to a continuous protein breakdown to supply the body with fuel. Ketone are used to feed some of the brain cells.
  19. During fasting, if a body protein losses were to continue at this rate, death would ensure within about _____
    3 weeks
  20. As the fasting continues, the body continues to find a way to use its fat to fuel the brain. It adapts by condensing together fragments derived from fatty acids to produce . . .
    Ketone bodies
  21. Define Ketone Bodies
    Acidic, water soluble compounds produced by the liver during the breakdown of fat when carbs are not available
  22. Small amounts of ketone bodies are normally produced during energy metabolism, but when their blood concentrates rise, they spill into the urine. 

    What is the medical term for this?
  23. Medical term for a high blood concentration of ketone bodies.
  24. Medical term for ketone bodies in the urine
  25. As the fasting continues and the nervous system shifts to partial dependence on ketone bodies for energy, the body simultaneously reduces its ______ and conserves both _____ and ______.
    • Energy output (metabolic rate)
    • Fat 
    • Lean
  26. What are the hazards of fasting?
    • Wasting of lean tissue
    • Impairment of disease resistance
    • Lowering of body temp.
    • Disturbances of the body;s fluid and electrolyte balances
  27. When fasting, the body makes a number of adaptations:

    Name the 4
    • Increasing the break down of fat to provide energy for most of the cells
    • Using glycogen and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system. 
    • Producing ketones to fuel the brain
    • Slowing metabolism
  28. Increasing the break down of fat to provide energy for most of the cells

    Using glycogen and amino acids to make glucose for the red blood cells and central nervous system. 

    Producing ketones to fuel the brain

    Slowing metabolism

    All are measure to converse ______ and minimize _______.
    • Energy 
    • Losses
  29. Changes in energy stores =
    Energy in (Kcal) - Energy out (Kcal)
  30. As a general rule, ______ of excess Kcal amount to 1 lb.

    *Keep in mind, however, that this number can vary widely with individual metabolic tendencies and efficencies of nutrient digestion and absorption.
  31. The body expends energy in two major forms:
    • Basal Metabolism 
    • Voluntary Activites
  32. What is the rate at which the body expends energy for life sustaining activities, under specified conditions?
    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  33. When is an individual's basal metabolic rate at its lowest?
    During sleep
  34. What are the specific conditions for taking an accurate basal metabolic rate?
    • Person is awake
    • Lying still in a comfortable temp. 
    • A restful night's sleep
    • An overnight fasting (12-14 hrs)
    • Without an physical or emotional excitement.
  35. How is the resting metabolic rate (RMR) differ from the basal metabolic rate?
    It is similar to the BMR, but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activities.
  36. Why will the resting metabolic rate usually be higher than the basal metabolic rate?
    The resting metabolic rate (RMR) is less stringent on the criteria of recent food intake and physical activities.
  37. Energy for physical activities: voluntary activities depend on what three factors?
    Muscle mass, body weight, and activity.
  38. What are the percentile components of energy expenditure?
    • Basal Metabolism:50-60%
    • Physical Activities: 30-50%
    • Thermal Effect of food: 10%

    Image Upload 1
  39. One way to increase basal metabolic rate (BMR) is to maximize ______ body tissue by participating in endurance and strength-building exercises.
  40. The amount of Kcal spent on voluntary activities depends on three factors:

    Name the three factors.
    • Muscle mass
    • Body weight
    • Activity
  41. How does age affect BMR?
    Lean muscle mass diminishes with age, slowing the BMR
  42. How does height affect BMR?
    In tall, thin people, the BMR is higher
  43. How does growth affect BMR?
    In children, adolescents, and pregnant women, the BMR is higher
  44. How does body composition (gender) affect BMR?
    The more lean tissue, the higher the BMR (which is why males usually have a higher BMR than females). The more fat tissue, the lower the BMR.
  45. How does fever affect BMR?
    Raises it
  46. How does stress (to include many diseases and certain drugs)affect BMR?
    It raises it.
  47. How does environment temp affect BMR?
    Both heat and cold raise BMR
  48. How does fasting/starving affect BMR?
    Lower it
  49. How do hormones affect BMR?
    The thyroid hormone thyroxin, for example, can speed up or slow down the BMR. Premenstrual hormones slightly raise the BMR
  50. How does smoking affect BMR?
    Nicotine increases energy expenditure
  51. How does caffeine affect BMR?
    Caffeine increases energy expenditure
  52. Energy needs vary among individuals depending on such factors as:
    • Gender
    • Growth
    • Age
    • Physical Activity
    • Body composition
  53. The _____ has a great influence on the weight concerns and dieting patterns of people of all ages.
  54. A healthy weight falls between a Body mass index of ____ through _____.
    • 18.5
    • 24.9
  55. Concerning BMI, underweight would be . . .
    Below 18.5
  56. Concerning BMI, overweight would be . . .
    Above 25
  57. Concerning BMI, obese would be . . .
    Above 30.
  58. Why are BMI values not as useful for evaluating non-obese people's body fatness.?
    • They do not reveal how much of the weight is fat
    • They do not indicate where the fat is located
  59. BMI are better used to determine . . .
    The degrees of obesity
  60. Visceral fat is stored deep within the ______ area of the body.
    Central Abdominal
  61. Visceral fat that is stored in within the central abdominal area of the body is referred to?
    Central Obesity
  62. Why is central obesity a contributor to heart disease, cancers, diabetes, and related deaths?
    In central obesity, a shift occurs in the balance of adipokines, favoring those that increase both chronic inflammation and insulin resistance contribute to diabetes, atherosclerosis(a cause of heart disease), and other chronic disease.
  63. What are hormones releases fro the adipose tissue to help regulate inflammation and energy metabolism?
  64. Visceral fat creates what type of profile in a person?
    • Apple
    • Image Upload 2
  65. What type of profile does subcutaneous fat around the hips and thighs create?
    • Pear
    • Image Upload 3
  66. What is a good indicator of fat distribution and central obesity?
    Waist circumference
  67. In general, women with a waist of _____ and men with ______ have a higher risk of central obesity related health problems.
    • > 35 in.
    • > 40 in.
  68. ________ measurements provide an accurate estamine of the total body fat's location.
  69. What is  skin fold measure?
    A clinical estimate of total body fatness in which the thickness of a fold of skin on the back o the arm (over the triceps muscles), below the shoulder blade (subscapular), or in other places is measured with a caliper
  70. What device is used to measure skinfold?
  71. An estimated ___% of U.S. adults are overweight.
  72. ____________, especially older people, may be unable to preserve lean muscle when fighting a wasting disease such as cancer
    Underweight people
  73. Excess weight contributes to up to half of all _______ cases.
  74. An extreme underweight condition in which patient exercises unreasonable self-denial in order to control their weight.
    Anorexia Nervosa
  75. Define Insulin resistance.
    Condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect in muscle, adipose, and liver cells, resulting in an elevated fasting glucose, a metabolic consequence of obesity that precedes type 2 diabetes
  76. People with type 2 diabetes typically have what type of obesity?
    Central Obesity.
  77. In the United States, ______ is the second only to tobacco use as the most significant cause of preventable death.
  78. What 3 indicators for identifying and evaluating the risks to health from overweight and obesity?
    • BMI
    • Waist Circumference 
    • Disease Risk profile
  79. An overweight adult, is defined within what BMI range?

    • 25.0-29.9
    • > 30
  80. People who are overweight, are defined with a waist circumference of what range?


  81. What is another word for the digestive tract. The principal organs are the stomach and intestines.
    Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
  82. Where does the process of digestion begin?
    The mouth
  83. ______helps dissolve the food so that you can taste it; only particles in solution can react with taste buds.
  84. When you swallow a mouthful of food, it passes through the _______,  a short tube that is shared by both the digestive and the respiratory system.
  85. What is a bolus?
    A mouthful of food that has been chewed and swallowed.
  86. Once the pharynx directs the bolus down the esophagus, it must pass through the ______.
    Esophageal sphincter
  87. After the bolus passes through the esophageal spincter and the rest of the esophagus, it enters the ______
Card Set:
Chapter 6 and 2
2016-10-04 02:53:42
nutrition science health healthcare

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