Biogeography: Atmospheric Structure & Composition

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  1. Air density decreases with
    • Height.
    • (Atmospheric pressure highest at earth's surface)
  2. Earth's Atmosphere Layers
    • 1. Troposphere
    • ------tropopause
    • 2. Stratosphere
    • ------stratopause
    • 3. Mesosphere
    • ------mesopause
    • 4. Thermosphere
  3. Troposphere
    • decreasing temp w/ increasing altitude
    • (includes 75% of atmospheric mass as mainly water vapor)
  4. Tropo/strato/mesopause temp
    boundary between layers w/ constant temp w/ increasing altitude
  5. Stratosphere
    temp increase w/ altitude
  6. O3 formed how?
    Photodisassociation - uv radiation splits O3 bonds
  7. Ozone layer
    region in Stratosphere w/ high concentration of O3
  8. Ozone Hole
    • Depletion of O3 in a zone
    • Make worse by bromine, chlorine, and especially chlorofluorocarbons
  9. Montreal Protocol
    1987- phased out production of ozone harming substances
  10. Why do temps increase w/ altitude in the stratosphere?
    Ozone absorbing sunlight, and the higher up portions of O3 absorb more
  11. Makeup of Earth's atmosphere:
    • 78% Nitrogen
    • (connected by triple bond)
    • 21% Oxygen
  12. Where oxygen comes from:
    • Photosynthesis:
    • 28% Rainforests
    • 70% Marine Plant
  13. ppmv
    parts per million by volume
  14. Electromagnetic Radiation
    radiant energy traveling at speed of light as waves in electric and magnetic fields
  15. Wavelength & color
    • Red = longer/lower wavelength
    • Green = medium/middle
    • Blue = shorter/higher
  16. Electromagnetic spectrum
    Visible light/non-visible waves
  17. 2 Laws in relation to solar radiation:
    Stefan-Boltzmann Law- Radiation = functon of the 4th power of an object's absolute temp.Therefore, the warmer an object, the more intense its emitted radiation

    Wien's Law- wavelength of max. radiation is inversely proportional to an objects absolute temp. Therefore the warmer an object, the max. radiation occurs at shorter wavelengths
  18. Shortwave:
    • energy from sun
    • peaks in visible wavelengths
    • greater intensity
  19. Longwave
    • energy from earth
    • peaks in thermal wavelengths
    • lesser intensity
  20. Solar radiation's interaction with Earth's atmosphere:
    • Reflection
    • Scattering
    • Absorbtion
    • Transmission
  21. Albedo
    % of solar energy reflected from the Earth back into space

    • Factors: Sun angle, surface color, surface texture
    • High: Clouds, Water
    • Low: dirt, forests, black roads
  22. Scattering
    • "Rayleigh" scattering- the process of diffusion
    • - Small particles and gas molecules re-orient direction of radiation. For solar energy, this approximates a random process

    Amnt & direction = function of: radius of scattering particle & wavelength of the energy
  23. Absorption
    Retaining radiation energy to another form of energy (ex. heat)
  24. Transmission
    proportion of solar radiation passing through the atmosphere
Card Set:
Biogeography: Atmospheric Structure & Composition
2016-10-04 23:54:01

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