psy 108: ch 6

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psy 108: ch 6
2010-09-02 10:14:04

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  1. Metamemory

    • Ppl's knowledge & control of their memory
    • Plays major part in memory improvement
    • Isn't always accurate in predicting memory performance [thinking you got an A on a test but got a C]
    • Can actually predict memory performance when ppl have # of items to remember--can predict which indiv terms they'll remember
    • Foresight bias
    • Less accurate when task is less clear-cut than in paired associate learning
    • Delayed judgments likely to provide accurate assessments of memory performance b/c assess LTM
    • ADHD: more likely to overestimate total score on memory tasks
    • Should help students identify which memory strategies work best for them & which ones are ineffective
    • Children: relatively poor metacog skills; unsophisticated ideas abt how memory works; difficult to test b/c haven't dvlpd sophisticated vocab to describe mental states; theory of mind
    • Important component: awareness that if you really want to remember something you need to make an effort
    • Metamemory -> strategy use -> memory performance
    • Elderly: same fundamental knowledge as young adults; more likely to be overconfident on memory tasks; report probs w/everyday memory (stereotype)
    • Overestimate when learning by rehearsal; underestimate when learning by narratives & images
  2. Foresight bias

    • Overestimate the # of answers you'll correctly supply on a future test
    • 1 prob is ppl studying w/correct responses visible so prediction isn't realistic--seems easier
    • Prob w/flashcards
  3. ADHD
    • Difficulty paying close attention at school, work, & in other activities
    • 4-5% adults have it
    • Even more likely than others to overestimate their total score on memory tasks--contributes to academic difficulties
    • Highly accurate in estimating their performance on item-by-item basis (esp w/delay)
    • Ppl w/ADHD can make highly accurate judgments abt an important component of memory
  4. Feeling of knowing

    • Prediction abt whether you could correctly recognize the correct answer to a ?
    • More conscious effect than tip of the tongue--you thoughtfully assess whether you could recognize the answer if you're given several options
    • If someone asks you to list as many members of specific category as possible [list of veggies] you know whether you can supply dozens of additional items & when the category's nearly empty
    • Likely to be strong if you can retrieve a large amt of partial info
    • Weaker if few mental clues available
  5. Metacomprehension

    • Our thoughts abt comprehension
    • Usu college students not very accurate in metacomp skills [may not notice inconsistencies/missing info in written passage but think they understand it]
    • Students often beleive they've understood something they've read b/c familiar w/its general topic--fail to retain specific info & overestimate performance (confuse understanding w/familiarity)
    • Excellent metacomp -> higher scores on reading comp tests
    • To improve: pretest; summarize; regulate your reading
    • Mostly focuses on reading vs. hearing

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