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  1. list the layers (based on temp) of the atmosphere from lowest to highest
  2. Which layer of the atmosphere is coldest?
  3. Which layer of the atmosphere is the warmest?
  4. Which layer of the atmosphere contains all of our weather?
  5. How does the risk of death from weather events compare with other risks in life?
    • The risk is relatively, compared to things like tobacco, obesity, alcohol, and microbial agents.
    • Weather related death is at least 100 tiimes less likely than any of these
  6. On average in the United States, what weather related event takes the most lives annually?
    Heat is the cause of 43% of weather related deaths
  7. The primary source of oxygen for the earth's atmosphere during the past half billion years or so appears to be:
  8. That is the average (standard) temperature lapse rate in the troposphere?
    6.5°C for every 1000m rise in elevation
  9. Explain the concept of air pressure in terms of mass of air above some level
    Air pressure may be measured in terms of the total mass of air above any point
  10. Why does air pressure decrease with height more rapidly in cold air than in warm air?
    Warm air expands creating a less dense atmosphere. with lower density, we must travel farther to include the same number of molecules, which is how pressure is defined
  11. What can cause the air pressure to change at the bottom of a column of air?
    outgassing can cause the temperature to rise from the bottom, which will lower the pressure
  12. Convert °C to K
    K = °C + 273
  13. What is the most abundant greenhouse gas?
    water vapor
  14. What are the two most abundant gasses in the earth's atmosphere by volume? What percentage of dry air does each take up?
    • N2 =78%
    • O2 = 21%
    weather is what is currently going on, without respect to past history, climate is the accumulation of weather history
  16. If two parcels at sea level have the same pressure but different temperatures, will the colder parcel have density: lower, higher or the same as the warmer parcel?
    colder will be denser (higher density)
  17. What is defined as the measure of average speed of air molecules?
  18. How much pressure on average in the atmosphere?
  19. Typically, water vapor occupies what percentage of the air's volume near the earth's surface?
    less than 4%
  20. In the middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, explain why even though the earth's surface receives maximum sunlight on June 21(summer solstice), the warmest time of the year typically occurs in July.
    At the solstice, the amount of solar energy available is greater than the loss of longwave radiation. Only after the ground warms up, and increases longwave radiation release and the solar radiation is diminished by a diminishing solar elevation angle,  an equilibrium is reached between energy gain and loss
  21. During the Northern Hemisphere's summer, the daylight hours in far northern latitudes are longer than in middle latitudes. Explain why far northern latitudes are not warmer
    The amount of atmosphere the sunlight must pass through is thicker in the northern latitude due to the solar elevation angle.
  22. Explain why average summer (January) temperatures in the Southern Hemisphere are cooler than in average summer temperatures (July) in the Northern Hemisphere, even though the earth is closer to the sun in January
    The Southern Hemisphere is covered by more ocean, which absorbs the heat and makes the temperature cooler
  23. In the N hemi, why are summers warmer than winters even though the earth is actually closer to the sun in January?
    The Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the sun i the summer, so solar elevation angle allows for less thick atmosphere for the sun heat to pass through. In January the solar elevation angle is such that the wall of atmosphere is thicker, which means more of the heat is absorbed before it reaches the surface.
  24. What are the main factors that determine seasonal temperature variations?
    the elevation angle of the sun, which depends on the tilt of the earth's axis, which depends on the time of the year
  25. Explain how the earth and its atmosphere balance incoming energy with outgoing energy
    Incoming solar radiation is absorbed by the ground, which warms. then the ground emits longwave radiation into the atmosphere, and the atmosphere sends some of that energy into space, and some of it back to the surface
  26. How would having no greenhouse effect impact the Earth's temperature?
    The temperature would be lower, because the greenhouse effect is caused by greenhouse gases, which absorb the longwave radiation emitted from the earth and send some of it back
  27. How do the wavelengths of most of the radiation emitted by the sun differ from those emitted by the earth?
    The sun is much hotter, therefore it will emit radiation with shorter wavelengths than the earth will emit
  28. WEIN'S LAW
    λmax ∝ 1/temp
  29. how does temp influence radiation?
    • stefan-boltzmann
    • radiation ∝ temp4
Card Set:
2016-10-06 21:57:03
climate extreme weather

midterm review
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