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  1. Forensic Science
    the application of science to law
  2. Mathieu Orfila
    Father of forensic toxicology
  3. Francis Galton
    Fingerprints & their classification
  4. Leone Lattes
    created procedure to determine blood type from dried blood stains
  5. Calvin Goddard
    comparison microscope to determine if a particular GUN fired a bullet
  6. Albert Osborn
    Document (handwriting examination)
  7. Walter McCrone
    utilized MICROSCOPE & other methods to examine evidence
  8. Hans Gross
    scientific principles to the field of criminal investigation
  9. Edmond Locard
    incorporated Gross principles within a workable crime lab
  10. Locard's Exchange Principle
    when a criminal comes in contact with object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs
  11. What types/levels of crime labs are there, and approximate how many?
    Federal, State, County & Municipal (& some private) - approximate 350
  12. Name the 5 types of technical support in forensics
    • 1. Physical science
    • 2. Biology unit
    • 3. Firearms unit
    • 4. Document exam unit
    • 5. Photography unit
  13. Name optional services of tech support -
    • 1. Toxicology unit
    • 2. Latent fingerprint
    • 3. Polygraph unit
    • 4. Voiceprint analysis
    • 5. Evidence collection
  14. An individual whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average person -
    Expert Witness
  15. Guidelines set for determing the admissability of scientific evidence into the courtroom - GENERALLY ACCEPTED BY THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY -
    Frye Standard
  16. List the DAUBERT Criteria -
    • 1. Whether the scientific technique or theory can be & has been tested
    • 2. whether the technique/theoryhas been subject to peer review & publication
    • 3. the rate of error
    • 4. the existence & maintenance of standards controlling the techniques operation
    • 5. the scientific theory or method has attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant scientific community
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Chapter 1
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