313 Test 2

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  1. heterozygote
    individual organism posessing 2 different alleles at a locus.
  2. mendel experiment
    • parents: PP and pp
    • F1, all Pp
    • F2: 25% pp, 75% P_ ( 50 % Pp, 25 % PP)
  3. Probability rules:
    • 1. when want TWO events to occur (that are indep.), use MULTIPLICATION
    • 2. if cool with either OR, use SUM
    • 3. DEPENDENT situations:
    • subtract from total, ex/ marbles in bag
  4. chromosome theory of heredity
    chromosomes as carriers of genetic material
  5. sex X-linked characteristics:
    male patterned baldness, eye color of fruit flies, cat coat color
  6. penetrance
    • 1. allele does not always penetrate into phenotype of individual
    • 2. polydactyl, high expressivity if lots of digits, only one skin tag = low expressivity
  7. recessive lethal
    • if one allele of lethal one is present, doesnt effect organism. effects organism with both of that allele.¬†
    • ex/ if Y lethal, YY , NOT yy or Yy
    • ex/ if y lethal, yy, NOT YY or Yy
  8. multiple alleles
    • ex/ blood¬†
    • IA, IB, Iii
  9. How genes can interact
    • 1. novel phenotype: 2 genes can combine to affect a single trait
    • ex/ fruit color of pepper
    • 2. epistasis: effects of 1 gene pair masking another gene pair
    • a. "allelic" between 2 different genes
    • b. masking gene: epistatic
    • c. hidden gene: hypostatic
    • ex/ bombay phenotype
    • squash coloration

    • 3. complemetation: crossing mutant genes to see if you can restore a wild type
    • (see if (more than) one recessive allele is on same locus, )
  10. incomplete dominance vs. co-d
    • 1. in: somewhere in middle of rec. and dom.
    • 2. co-d : hetero is rec + dom. only!
  11. cytoplasmic DNA
    • 1. extranuclear genes found in organelles in cytoplasm
    • 2. Mitochondrial genome:
    • a. circular DNA
    • b. 37 genes
    • c. circular dsDNA
    • d. 2-10 copies of mtDNA molecule in each mitochondrian
    • e. high mutation rate
    • 3. usually inherited maternally
    • 4. exhibits extensive phenotypic generation ( no meiosis /mitosis, so like blue eyes in one cell and naturally crabby behavior in another... not really but get the gist of the analogy?
    • 5.
  12. cytoplasmic inheritance
    • 1. equal no. of mitochondria w/wild and mutant type genes
    • 2. progeny have variety of wild and mutant in each cell
  13. mechanism in differences in severity
    • 1. mother, normal to 20% mutant genes
    • 2. bottleneck effect: number of mitochondria increases in a cell, some mutated mitochondria selected and therefore magnified in multiplication
  14. Genetic Maternal Effect:
    • 1. genes are inherited from both parents but... P1: S+
    • M1: S
    • 2. kid1: S+S, offspring G: Dextral, P:SINISTRAL (mother's phenotype, DOESNT matter what papa is)
    • 3. now kids 2: (mom is S+S, so P:S+S), but Genotype: (1/4)S+S+ 1/2 S+S 1/4SS
  15. genomic imprinting
    • silencing of one inherited gene
    • b. reversible: male getting silenced gened from mom will pass on (possibly) an unsilenced gene
  16. pleiotropy
    • one gene effects multiple characteristics
    • ex/ recessive lethal
  17. Models of transmission I, II, III
    • I. Independent Assortment: 2 genes on 2 different homologous pairs of chromes.
    • a. 4 dif. types of gametes
    • II. Complete Linkage: 2 genes on a single pair of homologs: no exchange occur
    • b. two dif. types of gametes
    • III. Recombination: 2 genes on a single pair of homologs: exchange occurs between 2 nonsister chromatids
    • a. 4 dif. types of
    • a.
  18. completely linked
    (no cross over), so same as parents
  19. incompletely linked
    • assort independently,
    • 1/2 of progeny are recombinant and half the progeny are not

Card Set Information

Author:
haleygreenbean
ID:
324315
Filename:
313 Test 2
Updated:
2016-10-12 15:45:13
Tags:
Genetics
Folders:
Genetics
Description:
chi test, spacing, calculations
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