Micro Vocab Chap 4

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Micro Vocab Chap 4
2010-09-02 14:13:09

Chapter 4 Vocab
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  1. prokaryotes
    a cell whose genetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear envelope
  2. binary fission
    prokaryotic cell reproduction by division into two daughter cells
  3. eukaryotes
    a cell having DNA inside a distinct membrane-enclosed nucleus
  4. coccus
    a spherical or ovoid bacterium
  5. bacillus
    any rod shaped bacterium
  6. diplococci
    a pair of cocci
  7. streptococci
    a chain of cocci
  8. staphylococci
    grapelike cluster of cocci
  9. vibrio
    a curved or comma-shaped bacterium
  10. spirilla / spirochete
    a helical or corkscrew-shaped bacterium
  11. monomorphic
    maintaining a single shape
  12. axial filament/endoflagella
    the structure for motility found in spirochetes
  13. fimbriae
    an appendage on a bacterial cell used for attachment
  14. conjugation pili
    an appendage on a bacterial cell used for conjugation
  15. cell wall
    the outer covering of most bacterial, fungal, algal, and plant cells
  16. peptidoglycan
    the structural molecule of bacterial cell walls
  17. porin
    a type of protein in the outer memrane of gram-negative cell walls that permits the passage of small molecules
  18. lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    a molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide, forming the outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls
  19. plasma (cytoplasmic) membrane
    the selectively permeable membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell the outer layer in animal cells, internal to the cell wall in other organisms
  20. cytoplasm
    the substance of a cell inside the plasma membrane (but external to the nucleus in eukaryotes)
  21. nucleoid
    area containing the circular bacterial chromosome
  22. plasmid
    small extrachromosomal circular double stranded piece of DNA
  23. ribosomes
    site of protein synthesis in cells
  24. inclusions
    reserve deposit of material in a prokaryotic cell
  25. endospores
    a specialized "resting" form of some prokaryotic cells
  26. pleomorphic
    can have many shapes
  27. capsule
    an outer, viscous covering on some bacteria composed of a polysaccharide or polypeptide
  28. flagella
    a thin appendage from the surface of a cell; used for cellular locomotion
  29. motility / taxis
    the ability of an organism to move by itself, or movement in response to an environmental stimulus