Med Term Chapter 3

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Med Term Chapter 3
2010-09-02 14:25:37
Medical Terminology

Med Term Chapter 3
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  1. What is a change in gene frequencies within populations from generation to generation?
    biological evolution
  2. What is E. O. Wilson's defenition of biological evolution?
    . . . a change in gene frequencies within populations from generation to generation . . .
  3. What is a gene?
    The fundamental unit of heredity
  4. What is a population?
    a group of interbreeding organisms
  5. Why is it important to understand that populations may change in gene frequencies from generation to generation rather than within a generation?
    Individuals do not evolve or change genetically, populations do (from generation to generation).
  6. Based on Stephen Jay Gould's essay "Evolution as Fact and Theory", what is a fact?
    • "Facts are the world's data."
    • ". . . fact does not mean absolutely certainty."
    • "In science, fact can only mean confirmed to such a degree that it would perverse to withhold provisional assent."
  7. Based on Stephen Jay Gould's essay "Evolution as Fact and Theory", what is a theory?
    "Theories are structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts."
  8. In his essay, "Evolution as Fact and Theory", Stephen Jay Gould considers organic evolution to be a fact and presents three arguments as to why. What are these arguments?
    • direct obsercational evidence
    • imperfections in nature
    • transition fossils
  9. What are the four main points of Darwin's theory of evolution?
    • heritable variation
    • competition
    • natural selection
    • adaptation & speciation
  10. Variation is a main point of Darwin's theory of evolution. Environment may produce variation, as when clones of plants are exposed to different amounts of sunshine. What type of variation is important in organic evolution?
    heritible (genetic)
  11. Competition between indivduals of the same species or different species is an important component of Darwin's theory of evolution. What is the cause of this competition?
    Populations almost always produce more individuals than there are resources to support them. This unlimited ability to reproduce in the face of limited natural resources leads to competition.
  12. What process selects those individuals best suited to survive and reproduce within the environment they inhabit.
    natural selection
  13. What is a simple but effective definition of natural selection?
    differential reproductive success
  14. At what level does natural selection work (population or individual)?
  15. Of the four main points of Darwin's theory of evolution as we outlined and discussed it in class, which of the four was Darwin's original idea?
    natural selection
  16. Natural selection leads to changes in the genetic makeup of populations and this changes in gene frequences within populations. Which of the four main points in Darwin's theory refers to this change?
  17. What term refers to the formation of a new species?
  18. What is speciation?
    the formation of a new species
  19. Who is the author of the following definition" ". . . a change in gene frequencies within populations from generation to generation. . . "
    E. O. Wilson
  20. Individuals do not evolve. Populations do. Why?
    The genetic makeup of an individual is determined at the moment of conception and does not change through the lifetime of that individual. the genetic makeup of a population may change from generation to generation.
  21. What is gene frequency?
    Gene frequency measure the frequency in the population of a particular gene relative to other genes at its locus. Expressed as a proportion (between 0 and 1) or percentage (between 0 and 100%).