Bacteriology wk 3

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  1. Rhodococcus equi
    • gram positive, variably acid fast, strict aerobic coccus or bacillus (in vitro vs clinical)
    • normal inhabitant of soil and animal manure (commensal, good in environment)
    • acquired by inhalation or direct contact
    • pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia of foals (1-6m old)
    • opsonized by complement, taken up and lives in macrophages (needs VapA protein to survive intracellularly)
    • mycolic acid in cell wall causes pyogranulomatous lesions
    • catalase +, grow on blood agar
  2. Mycobacterium species
    • gram + acid fast strict aerobic bacillus
    • Tuberculosis = chronic granulomatous disease (monocytes surround proliferating bacteria)
    • m tuberculosis (dogs and NHP to human, pulmonary dz)
    • m avium avium (digestive infection)
    • m bovis (pulmonary dz of ruminants, swine, cats, USDA, zoonotic from milk)
    • usu acquired by inhalation, opsonized then taken in and live in macrophages.  Intra and extracellular replication
    • cell wall components (mycolic acid) cause inflammation
    • monocytes surround bacteria and granulomas are formed.  
    • Grown on egg agar (takes a long time)
    • can be killed but culling recommended.
  3. Nocardia spp
    • gram positive variably acid fast filamentous bacilli, obligate aerobe
    • in environment
    • inhalation, ingestion, trauma
    • suppurative to granulomatous disease: necrotizing pneumonia with pyothorax, pyogranuloma with draining tract.  Mucopurulent nasal d/c, anorexia, weight loss, cough, dyspnea.  
    • blood agar
    • Trimethoprim/sulfonamide, dz of immunosupporessed so keep healthy!
  4. mycoplasma
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram - but aren't, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.  
    • Commensal of nasal, conjunctival, oral, intestinal and genital mucosa
    • transmission by inhalation, direct contact
    • STRESS
    • adhere to respiratory epithelium via surface proteins that vary antigenically by species (may cause ciliostasis or ciliary damage).  Capsule prevents clearance.  
    • chronic infection common (antigenic variation, biofilms, continue to activate inflammatory response)
    • don't survive outside host
    • needs sterol source and CO2 to grow in culture (7d).  Fried egg colonies.  
    • sensitive to antibiotics (not against cell wall)
    • Live attenuated vax for gallisepticum and CBPP (but CULL), hyopneumoniae has bacterin.  
    • C-section pigs and pasteurize or milk replacer in calves.
  5. mycoplasma gallisepticum
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram - but aren't, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • primary cause of chronic respiratory tract and air sac disease of chickens, turkey, other fowl.
    • causes coughing, nasal d/c and sinusitis in turkeys
    • REPORTABLE
  6. mycoplasma meleagridis
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • air sac disease disease in turkeys (also iowae, gallisepticum)
  7. Mycoplasma iowae
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • air sac disease in turkeys (also meleagridis, gallisepticum), chickens
  8. mycoplasma mycoides spp (small colony type, bovine)
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • contagious bovine pleuropneumonia: respiratory distress, nasal d/c, severe depression
    • Reportable, bioterrorism threat.  Cull infected (though there is a live attenuated vaccine)  Eradicated in US
  9. mycoplasma bovis
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • bovine pneumonia, otitis media in calves (pasteurize or use milk replacer)
  10. Mycoplasma dispar
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • bovine respiratory disease, mild
  11. mycoplasma mycoides (large colony type) mycoides
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • caprine pleuropneumonia, cough, respiratory distress, rapidly fatal septicemia (like mycoides capri)
    • Major economic significance in goats
  12. mycoplasma mycoides (large colony type) capri
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • pleuropneumonia, cough, respiratory distress, rapidly fatal septicemia (like mycoides mycoides)
  13. Mycoplasma capricolum capripneumoniae
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
    • respiratory distress, nasal discharge, severe depression
    • REPORTABLE, potential for bioterrorism
  14. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • minor respiratory disease leads to secondary sheep pneumonia by mannheimia haemolytica
  15. mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • enzootic pneumonia, nonproductive cough, delayed weight gain
    • deliver piglets via C section to prevent spread
  16. Mycoplasma felis
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • equine pleuritis (exercise-induced, self-limiting)
    • feline disease
  17. mycoplasma cynos
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • canine rapidly spreading pneumonia, with other diseases like bordatella
  18. mycoplasma pulmonis
    • pleiomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol.
    • low grade respiratory disease with purulent nasal exudate, rubbing of eyes and nose, wheezing
    • rats and mice
  19. histophilus somni
    • gram negative facultative anaerobe bacillus
    • commensal of respiratory tract
    • transmission by inhalation
    • thrombotic meningoencephalitis
    • neuro signs in calves (Stress, fall/winter) - recumbent, ADR, ataxia, knucking, crossing over
    • multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in brain
    • dx at necropsy (lesions, tissue, blood agar)
    • IV abx (oxytetracycline)
    • bacterin vaccine for partial protection
  20. aspergillus
    • mold with septate hyphae, reproduce with phialconidia (aspergillus fumigatus)
    • natural inhabitant of soil
    • transmission by inhalation, ingestion
    • outbreaks due to overgrowth in hay, compost, silage, etc. 
    • Brooder pneumonia in birds (dyspnea, gasping, accelerated breathing, inappetance, listless, weight loss)
    • nasal aspergillosis in dogs (sneezing, d/c, pain, ulceration of external nares)
    • gutteral pouch mycosis in horses (vague URI, epistaxis)
    • biopsy/scraping.  Phialoconidia seen in air passages.  Culture on dextrose agar.  
    • antifungals for dogs and horses (not effective), not cost effective for fowl.  PREVENTION.
    • It's EVERYWHERE, so culture doesn't matter without symptoms.

Card Set Information

Author:
XQWCat
ID:
324444
Filename:
Bacteriology wk 3
Updated:
2016-10-13 22:20:31
Tags:
IV
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Description:
IV bacteria wk 3
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