Pharmacology Exam 2

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  1. Glutamate
    • AMPA and NMDA
    • Excitatory
    • Related to memory
  2. GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    • Inhibitory
    • Sleep, reduce anxiety
    • Basal ganglia
  3. Gaba a
    • ionotropic
    • sedative effects
  4. Gaba b
    • metabotropic
    • K+ exit leads to hyperpolarization
    • muscle relaxant
  5. Acetylcholine
    • CNS and PNS
    • Related to alzheimer's disease
  6. Dopamine
    • Substantia nigra
    • Depression, ADHD, Parkinson's
  7. Serotonin
    • Raphe Nucleus
    • Depression
  8. Norepinephrine
    • CNS and PNS
    • Regulates blood pressure and calmness
    • Depression
  9. Basal Ganglia
    • Grey Matter
    • Help initiate and control intended movement
    • Parkinson's disease
  10. Thalamus (diencephalon)
    Links sensory pathways from the periphery to the cerebral cortex
  11. Hypothalamus (diencephalon)
    Controls the pituitary gland, hunger and thermoregulation
  12. Hippocampus
    • Major center for learning and memory
    • First to be damaged by alzheimer's
  13. Cerebellum
    • Balance
    • Eye movement
    • Roles in motor learning
  14. Sympathetic
    • Thoracolumbar
    • Short preganglionic fibers and long postganglionic
  15. Parasympathetic
    • craniosacral
    • Long preganglionic fibers and short postganglionic
  16. M2 Receptor
    • Activates Gai
    • inhibitory
    • reduction in contractile force
    • Slows heart rate
  17. M3
    • Activates Gaq
    • Excitatory
    • Contraction, secretion, vasodilation
  18. Hemicholinium-3
    Inhibits ACh synthesis by blocking Na+-choline symporter
  19. Vesamicol
    Inhibits ACh storage by blocking the H+-ACh antiporter
  20. Physostigmine
    • treats glaucoma
    • used to treat anticholinergic toxicity
  21. Neostigmine/pyridostigmine
    • Treat myasthenia gravis
    • AChE inhibitors
  22. Pilocarpine
    • miotic used to treat glaucoma
    • treats dry mouth
  23. Atropine
    • mAChR antagonist
    • induce mydriasis, inhibit secretion
  24. Scopolamine
    • inhibits M3 to stop GI tract and reduce salivation
    • inhibition of ACh in CNS leads to sedation
  25. Alpha-1 Receptors
    • Adrenergic system
    • Contraction in vascular smooth muscle, urinary sphincter, GI sphincters, Iris dilator, arrector pili
    • increased contractile strength
    • increased glucose generation
  26. Alpha-2 Receptors
    • inhibition
    • negative feedback
    • decreased insulin secretion
    • Causes aggregation
  27. Beta-1 Receptors
    • Increased heart rate and contraction force
    • increase renin secretion (high blood pressure)
    • increase in secretion
  28. Beta-2 Receptors
    • Relaxation of smooth muscle, bronchial tree, and arteries
    • increased glucose production
  29. Beta-3 Receptors
    break down of adipose tissue to be used for energy
  30. Epinephrine
    • Low concentration predominantly beta-1 and beta-2 effects
    • high concentration predominantly alpha-1 effects
    • used to treat anaphylaxis and asthmatic attacks
  31. Norepinephrine
    • Agonist at alpha-1 and beta-1 receptors
    • treat hypotension
  32. Reserpine
    • Binds and inhibit VMAT
    • At high doses leads to sympathomimetic effect
  33. MAO Inhibitors
    • Prevent degradation of NE that are transported back into presynaptic terminals
    • Mostly used to treat depression
  34. Alpha-Blockers
    • Inhibits ability of catecholamines to constrict the blood vessels
    • Treat hypertension
    • Treat urinary bladder dysfunction conditions
  35. Beta-Blockers
    • Treat various kinds of heart diseases
    • Control muscle tremors and anxiety, prevent migraines, and used as eye drops for glaucoma

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Author:
Pontoon
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324458
Filename:
Pharmacology Exam 2
Updated:
2016-10-12 05:54:10
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nervous system
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Pharmacology Exam 2
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