A+P Ch 8

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  1. Define joint (articulation)
    articulation: site where 2 or more bones meet
  2. Classify joints by structure and function

    - 2 joint classifications , emphasize each
    • 2 Joint Classifications 
    • - functional - structural 

    • Functional:
    • -give skeleton mobility
    • - hold skeleton together

    Based on the amount of movement a joint allows....

    • Synarthrosis: immovable joints
    • Amphiarthroses: slightly moveable joints
    • Diarthroses: Freely moveable joints 

    • Structural
    • -material binding bones together
    • -presence/absence of joint cavity

    • 3 structural classifications...
    •  1) Fibrous joints: bones joined by dense fibrous connective tissue: no joint cavity: most synarthroic
    • Ex. Sutures ( skull),
    • Syndesmoses ( above the ankle, above the wrist, between vertebrae) 
    • Gomphoses ( teeth to socket) 

    • 2) Cartilaginous joints: bones united by cartilage, no joint cavity, not highly moveable ( amphiarthrotic) 
    • - symphysis: Ex. pubic symphysis, fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc 
    • -synchondroses ( synarthrotic)- ex rib meets mandbrium

    3)Synovial joints: bones separated by fluid-filled joint cavity; all are diarthrotic ( most joints of body ex. all limb joints
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    -fibrous joint 

    - held together with very short interconnecting fibers

    -bone edges interlock 

    - Only in the skull
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    - fibrous joint

    -its held together by ligaments 

    -the fibrous tissue is longer then in sutures
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    -fibrous joint

    -"peg in socket"

    - periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket
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    - cartilage joints

    1) epiphyseal plate ( temporary hyaline cartilage joint)

    2) Joint between 1st rib and sternum ( immovable)
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    -cartilage joint 

    C) Body of vertebra, fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc ( sandwiched between hyaline cartilage) 

    D)  pubic symphysis
  8. What are the  6 structural characteristics of synovial joints ?
    Synovial joints...

    • 1) Articular cartilage:
    • -hyaline cartilage
    • - prevents crushing of bone ends
    • 2) Articular capsule : 2 layers
    • - external fibrous layer: dense irregular connective tissue
    • -inner synovial membrane: loose connective tissue, makes synovial fluid 
    • 3) Synovial cavity:
    • small fluid filled potential space 
    • 4) Synovial fluid:
    • -viscous, slippery filtrate of plasma and hyaluronic acid 
    • -lubricates the articular cartilage
    • -contains phagocytic cells to remove microbes and debris 
    • 5) different types of reinforcing ligaments 
    • 6) Nerve and blood vessels
    • - nerve fibers = pain, monitor joint position and stretch

    - capillary beds supply filtrate for synovial fluid
  9. General structure of synovial joint
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  10. Describe the range of motion for synovial joints
    Synovial joints range of motion ...

    - nonaxial: slipping movement only 

    - uniaxial: movement in one plane 

    -biaxial: movement in 2 planes 

    multiaxial: movement in or around 3 planes
  11. Name the 3 general movements of synovial joints
    • 1) Gliding
    • 2) Angular movements
    •         saggital plane....
    •             -flexion
    •             -extension
    •             -hyperextension
    •        frontal plane.......
    •             -abduction
    •             -adduction
    •             -circumduction
    • 3)Rotation
    • - medial rotation
    • -lateral rotation
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    synovial joint movement: gliding

    gliding: 1 flat bone glides or slips over another similar surface 

    ex. intercarpal joints, intertarsal joints
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    Synovial joint movement along the saggital plane 

    1) angular movements 

    - flexion: decreases the angle of the joint 

    - extension: increases the angle of the joint 

    - hyperextension: excessive extension beyond the normal range of motion
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    Synovial joint movement along the frontal plane

    1) Angular movement : increase/decrease angle between 2 bones 

    Abduction: movement away from the midline

    adduction: movement towards the midline

    Circumduction: flexion, abduction, extension, adduction
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    synovial joint movement : rotation 

    rotation: Turning of bone around its own long axis ( ex. between C1 and C2 vertebrae, and rotation of humerus and femur ) 

    medial rotation: toward midliner

    lateral rotation: away from the midline
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    supination: rotating the forearm laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly or superiorly in anatomical position the hand is supinated

    pronation: rotating the forearm medially so that the palm faces posteriorly or inferiorly
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    Dorsiflexion: lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin

    Plantar flexion: depressing the foot
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    Inversion sole of the foot turns medially

    Eversion: sole of the foot turns laterally
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    Non angular anterial and posterior movements in a transverse plane are .... 

    Protraction: mandible is protracted when you jut out your jaw

    Retraction when you bring your jaw back after protraction
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    Elevation: lifting body part superiorly, elevation of mandible during chewing

    depression: moving elevated part inferiorly, depression of mandible during chewing
  21. describe opposition joint
    opposition: when you touch your thumb to the tips of other fingers. Opposition makes the hand a tool for grasping and manipulating things
  22. Synovial Joint Type 

    - Plane, and Hinge 

    Describe shape, movement, and joint example
    • Plane Joint:
    • -Flat
    • -Non axial
    • -Gliding
    • -Intercarpal

    • Hinge:
    • -cylinder
    • -uniaxial
    • -flexion/extension
    • -elbow
  23. synovial joint type

    Pivot, and Condylar 

    - shape and articular surface
    movement and joint example

    • - sleeve/axel 
    • -uniaxial
    • -rotation
    • -atantoaxial

    • Condylar
    • - oval
    • -biaxial
    • -flexion, extension, abduction, adduction
    • -metacarpophalangeal
  24. synovial joint type 

    - Saddle and ball and socket 

    List shape articular surface movement and joint example
    • Saddle:
    • -both concave and convex 
    • -biaxial
    • -flexion/extension, abduction/adduction
    • -carpo-metacarpal

    • Ball and socket: 
    • -cup/sphere
    • -multiaxial
    • -flex/extend abduction/adduction, rotation 
    • -shoulder

Card Set Information

A+P Ch 8
2016-10-13 19:30:06
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