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- once there were three scientists
- sir j fraser stoddart
- bernard l feringa
- jean pierre sauvage
- awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "the design and synthesis of molecular machines.”
- “They have developed molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added," the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said in a statement on Wednesday.
- "The development of computing demonstrates how the miniaturization of technology can lead to a revolution.”
- explaining how molecular machines work: dumbbell-shaped molecule, with a macrocycle - a really small cycle only visible with an electronic microscope, that recurs in different ways
- In 1999 Feringa created the first synthetic molecular motor—a molecule that spins in one direction based on the light- and heat-driven isomerization of a double bond.
- these can replace broken molecular motors, which drive proteins inside the body
- molecular switches: take the acidity of the solution they are situated in: if the solution is acidic, one side of the rotaxane reacts with the solution, also called a binding site, so the switch moves to that side; when the ph nature of the object switches from acidic to basic or vice versa, the switch changes position
- molecular pump: one side of the rotaxane is charged with two molecules of the same charge - the first molecule charges the medium passing through, and the second molecule repels it to the other side
- the pump keeps pumping, so the medium eventually is transferred over to the other side
- nanocar: an object that is put together from all the properties mentioned above, including molecular pumps, which allow molecular wheels to be able to propel the entire rotaxane forward when its surface is heated to a specific temperature
- this can be really useful in the future when creating drugs that can cure previously dangerous diseases such as cancer
- what can this be used for?
- curing cancer: in the future, when using molecular machines, it can be easy to use nanocars and molecular switches to battle growing cancer cells. using our already extensive medical knowledge, doctors have plenty of ways to kill cancer cells, but do not have many ways of safely injecting it into your body. using molecular motors, we can introduce molecular transportation inside the body, allowing the medicine to be carried by these molecular machines deep inside the body where problems may lie
- this does not only rest against curing cancer, but also helps with curing malaria and other diseases, all of which require stopping asexual reproduction of molecules that may harm your body (explain how malaria works and how nanocars can solve it)
- molecular computing: as all these molecular machines have the ability of communicating with each other at one time, there is the ability to create molecular supercomputers that can solve complex calculations in the same time that your calculator can solve a simple addition equation. this is a huge advantage over the silicon chip, where one computation moves along a series of calculations at one time
- storage: this would allow massive storage due to the massive amount of communication molecular machines allow between one another, due to their entirely physical nature: fraser stoddart created a 20kb microchip, which means a normal, six-gram chip could contain up to 3072 exabytes
- basically: the future of the world is in the hands of molecular computing. in the current world, people are worried about two things: themselves (their own health) and their computer
- cancer: with new molecular machines, we can find new opportunities and create new antidotes for long-unsolved diseases that many people have died from. we now can find cheap solutions by creating molecular pumps and nanocars that can rummage into the deepest parts of the body and kill all different types of unwanted cells such as malaria sporozoites and cancer cells
- computing: this would allow massive opportunities to increase computer speeds to find out much more about the world around us, as well as massively increase computer storage, not just for our convenience, but for entire laboratories to contain all the information that they will be able to find with the introduction of these molecular machines