Chapter 1: Our place in the Universe

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  1. Star
    • large glowing ball of gas
    • generates heat and light through nuclear fusion
  2. Planet
    • large object, orbits a star
    • shines by reflected light
    • may be rock, icy or gaseous in composition
  3. Moon
    object that orbits a planet

    Titan, Saturn's moon isn't homo-polar
  4. Asteroid
    small and rocky object that orbits a star
  5. Comet
    small and icy object that orbits a star
  6. Plasma vs. Dust Tail
    • Plasma: blue. interaction b/w the solar wind and the cometary plasma
    • Dust Tail: red. solar radiation to the cometary dust
  7. Comet Halley
    • Aphelion 30 AU
    • Orbital period 76 years
  8. Solar (Star) System
    a star and all the material which orbits it, including its planets and moons
  9. Protoplanet
    • a large body of matter in orbit around the sun or a star
    • thought to be developing into a planet
  10. Nebula
    interstellar could of gas and/or dust
  11. Galaxy
    a great island of stars in space, all held together by gravity and orbiting a common center
  12. Universe
    • sum total of all matter and energy
    • everything within and b/w all galaxies
  13. Atom
    microscopic building blocks of all chemical elements
  14. Earth's Rotation
    • axis tilt is 23.5°
    • rotates around its axis once every day
    • orbits around the sun once every year
    • we are moving with the earth
    • move faster when closer to the equator
    • average orbital speed is 108 000 km/hr
    • speed at equator is 0.5 km/s
  15. Milky Way
    • our galaxy
    • contains 100 billion stars 
    • diameter of 100 000 light years
    • Andromeda is the closest galaxy
  16. Alpha Centauri
    • nearest star to the sun
    • ~ 4 light years away
  17. Biggest Greenhouse Gas
    water because it can trap radiation and prevent sunlight from reaching the ground
  18. Dark Matter
    • dominates the total mass of the universe
    • light isn't detected, non-luminous material
  19. Dark Energy
    • causes the universe to expand at an accelerating rate
    • counteracts gravity
  20. Sun and Stars of the Local Solar Neighbourhood
    • orbit around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy every 230 million years
    • ~ 220 km/s
  21. How has the study of astronomy affected human history?
    • Copernican Revolution: showed that Earth wasn't the center of the universe
    • Study of planetary motion: led to Newton's Laws of motion and gravity
    • Newton's laws: laid the foundation of the industrial revolution
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Chapter 1: Our place in the Universe
2016-10-14 22:37:19
Lecture 1
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