Psych Memory

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  1. memory
    the ability to store and retrieve information over time
  2. encoding
    the process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel, into an enduring memory
  3. storage
    the process of maintaining information in memory over time
  4. retireval
    the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored.
  5. semantic encoding
    the process of relating new information in a meaningful way to knowledge that is already in memory
  6. sensory memory
    a type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
  7. iconic memory
    a fast-decaying store store of visual memory
  8. echoic memory
    a fast-decaying store auditory information
  9. short term memory
    a type storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
  10. rehearsal
    the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it.
  11. chunking
    combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term storage
  12. working memory
    active maintenance of information in short-term storage
  13. long-term memory
    a type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years
  14. Anterograde amnesia
    the inability to transfer new information from the short term store into the long term store
  15. retrograde amnesia
    the inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date (injury pr surgery)
  16. consolidation
    the process by which memories become stable in the brain
  17. reconsolidation
    the process that causes memories to become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, thus requiring them to become consolidated again
  18. long term potentiation
    a process by which communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier
  19. state dependent retrieval
    the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding or retrieval
  20. transfer-appropriate processing
    the idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when encoding and retrieval contexts of the situations match
  21. explicit memory
    that act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences
  22. implicit memory
    the influence of past experiences on later behavior and performance, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection
  23. procedural memory
    the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or knowing how to do things
  24. priming
    An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
  25. semantic memory
    a network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
  26. episodic memory
    the collection of past personal experience  that occurred at a particular time and place
  27. transcience
    forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
  28. retroactive interference
    situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier
  29. proactive interference
    situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later
  30. absentmindness
    a lapse in attention that results in memory failure
  31. prospective memory
    remembering to do things in the future
  32. blocking
    failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it
  33. memory misattribution
    assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
  34. source memory
    recall of when, where, and how information was acquired
  35. suggestibility
    the tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
  36. bias
    the distorting of influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences
  37. persistence
    the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
  38. flashbulb memory
    detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events
  39. what happened in the case of HM
    • removed part of his hippocampus
    • suffered anterograde amnesia
  40. what did people learn from the case of HM
    Hippocampus plays a role in consolidation of memories
  41. who developed processing model and what is it
    Atkinson and smith, information goes from sensory memory to short term memory to long term memory
  42. what occurs at all stages of the information process model
    interference and decay
  43. types of sensory memory
    iconic-0.5 sec, and echoic memory-3 sec.
  44. what did George Sperling investigate and what did he use
    investigated iconic memory, used the flashing of 4 rows of letter
  45. how long does short term memory last
    20 sec.
  46. what is chunking
    grouping information into higher order units
  47. maintenance rehearsal
    the conscious repetition of information that increases the time it stays in working memory
  48. What did George Baddeley
    created working model- sensory to long term before working memory and back in forth between long and short term
  49. what did Craig and Lockhart study
    memory process model, elaboration, levels of processing theory of memory, the bowl model
  50. elaboration
    the extensiveness of processing at a given level of memory, using associations to store in long-term
  51. explicit memory
    declarative memory use words to describe memory or experience
  52. types of explicit memory
    • episodic memory-personal experiences, flashbulb memory
    • semantic memory-facts
  53. serial position effect
    • primary effect-words at the beginning at the list are easy to remember 
    • recency effect- words at the end of a list are easy to remember
  54. what did Godden and Baddely study
    content dependent memory- learning in the same context that you recall helps remember it
  55. Gordon B.
    mood-dependent memory- tested better when in the same mood
  56. what is transfer-appropriate processing
    studying in the same place as the testing method helps memory
  57. what is decay theory
    info in long term fades over time
  58. what is interference
    competition among related memories
  59. cue dependent theory
    we don't have the cues necessary for retrieval
  60. encoding failure theory
    information never made it into memory (absentmindness)
  61. schemas
    mental frameworks representing our knowledge and assumptions about the world
  62. bias
    pre-existing knowledge or beliefs about a situation
  63. misattribution or source minitoring
    misremember where they learned a piece of information
  64. repression or motivated forgetting
    an unconconscious defense mechanism that keeps painful memories out of awareness
  65. what did Elizabeth propose
    false memory syndrome; people are creating memories based on suggestions
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Psych Memory
2016-10-21 01:01:35

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