N 207 - Lecture slides 4

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  1. what is the vascular system and how does it work? (6 steps)
  2. the vascular system is a closed system of of vessels through which blood flows continuously, with the heart serving as a pump.
    • blood pick up materials and delivers as needed
    • STEPS:
    • 1. blood leaves the right side of the heart by way of the pulmonary artery and goes to he lungs
    • 2. In the lungs: blood loses CO2 and picks up O2  and returns to the left side of the heart via the pulmonary vein
    • 3. In the heart: blood leaves the left side of the heart via the aorta (main artery that launches blood in the body)
    • 4. blood may leave the aorta and go to:
    •         a) the upper body and head 
    •         or
    •         b) the lower body
    • 5. blood may go to:
    •         a) the digestive tract and liver
    •         or
    •         b) the pelvis, kidneys and legs
    • 6. blood returns to the right side of the heart
    • 7. lymph from most of the body's organs, including the digestive system, enters the bloodstream near the track
  3. what is arteriosclerosis?
    • arteriosclerosis develops when areas of the artery walls become thickened with plaque
    • plaque = accumulations of fatty deposits , smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue
    • arteries = rough, rigid and narrow
    • since artery walls are not elastic anymore, that would increase blood pressure
    • it can block flow of blood to the heart and can cause a heart attack
    • it can cut off blood flow to the brain and cause a stroke
  4. how does the formation of plaque occur in arteriosclerosis?
    • the coronary arteries deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle
    • plaque can begin to form in a person as young as 15, thus reducing the blood flow
    • when these arteries become blocked by plaque, the part of the muscle that they feed will die
  5. how does the O2- CO2 exchange work?
  6. what is cardiac output?
    its the volume of blood pumped by the heart within a specified period of time
  7. what is peripheral resistance?
    refers to the resistance to pumped blood by small arterial branches (arterioles) that carry blood to tissues
  8. what are some non-modifiable risk factors?
    • age, sex and family history
    • men higher risk than women
    • men older than 45 years of age
    • women older than 55 years of age (after menopause)
    • immediate family history of premature heart disease
  9. what are some modifiable risk factors?
    • smoking
    • stress
    • sedentary behaviour
    • atherogenic diet (high calories, high saturated fat, high alcohol, low fibre/ high glycemic, low (high) vitamins/minerals)
    • obesity - visceral
    • hypertension
    • high LDL/low HDL
    • high triglycerides
    • high homocysteine
    • diabetes
    • chronic inflammation
  10. what is metabolic syndrome?
    • abdominal obesity
    •     men: waist circumference > 40 inches
    •     women: waist circumference > 35 inches
    • triglycerides: ≥150mg/dL
    • HDL: <40mg/dL in men, <50mg/dL in women
    • blood pressure: ≥130/85 mm Hg
    • fasting glucose: ≥ 100 mg/dL
  11. what are some classic GI tract funtions?
    • 1. ingestion
    • 2. mechanical processing
    • 3. digestion
    • 4. secretion
    • 5. absorption
    • 6. excretion
  12. what are some other functions of the GI tract?
    • 1. barrier : from toxins and bacterias in environment
    • 2. immunological (GALT)
    • 3. endocrine
    • 4. neural
    • 5. gut microbiota
  13. what are the components of the digestive tract?
  14. what do the oral cavity, teeth and tongue do?
    • they're in charge of processing, moistening and mixing with salivary secretions
    • salivary amylase = enzyme in saliva
  15. what does the pharynx do?
    its moves the food into the esophagus suing its muscles
  16. what does the esophagus do?
    • its transports the food to the stomach
    • has a flexible tube
    • peristalsis = muscle contraction that propel the food to go down
  17. how does peristalsis work?
    • STEP 1:
    • esophagus muscles relax, opening the passageway 
    • diaphragm muscles relax, opening the passageway

    • STEP 2:
    • esophagus muscles contract, squeezing on the inside
    • diaphragm muscles contract, squeezing on the outside
  18. what does the stomach do?
    • breaks down the material b using eacid and enzymes
    • there is mechanical processing that occurs through muscular contractions
  19. what does the small intestine do?
  20. how is our metabolism regulated?
    by negative feeback
  21. how does negative feedback work?
    • ON
    • 1. food in the stomach causes the cells of the stomach cell wall to start releasing gastrin
    • 2. gastrin stimulates stomach glands to release the components of HCl
    • 3. stomach pH reaches 1.5 acidity

    NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

    • OFF
    • 4. acidity in stomach causes the cells of the stomach wall to stop releasing gastrin
  22. what are some GI hormones?
    Gastrin

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Author:
K.A
ID:
324573
Filename:
N 207 - Lecture slides 4
Updated:
2016-10-16 03:07:03
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