A&P 1 Exam 2: Tissues

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  1. What are groups of cells that similar in structure and perform a common or related function?
  2. What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
    • Epithelial 
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  3. What major type of tissue is known to cover?
  4. What major type of type is known to support other tissues?
  5. What major type of tissue is known for producing movement?
  6. What major type of tissue is known for its control/internal communications function?
  7. Minor distortions encountered in microscope slides are called?
  8. What type of tissue forms the outer layer of the skin, lines open cavities, and covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity?
  9. Which type of tissue fashions the glands of the body?
    Glandular Epithelium
  10. In its role as an interface tissue, epithelium accomplishes many functions, including . . .
    • Protection
    • Absorption 
    • Filtration
    • Excretion
    • Secretion 
    • Sensory Reception
  11. What are the 5 distinguishing characteristics of epithelial tissue?
    • Polarity 
    • Specialized contacts
    • Supported by Connective tissue
    • Avascular but innervated 
    • Ability to regenerate
  12. What term describes the upper free surface exposed to the body exterior of epithelia tissue?
    Apical Surface
  13. What is the lower surface of the epithelial tissue?
    Basal Surface
  14. The difference between function and structure of the two epithelial surface.
    Apical-basal polarity
  15. Although some apical surfaces are smooth and slick, most have _______, finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane.
  16. Some apical surfaces are smooth and slick, most have _______, which tremendously increase the exposed surface area.
  17. Some epithelia, such as that lining the trachea(windpipe), have _________(tiny hairlike projections) that propel substances along their free surface.
    Motile Cilia
  18. Concerning epithelial tissue, ________ are tiny hairlike projections found in the trachea
    Motile Cilia
  19. The basal lamina, adjacent to the basal surface of the epithelium, consists largely of
  20. The basal lamina, adjacent to the basal surface of the epithelium, is ____-cellular, ______sheet.
    • Non-
    • Adhesive
  21. The basal lamina acts as a ______ that determines which molecules diffusing from the underlying connective tissue are allowed to enter the epithelium.
    Selective filter
  22. Except for glandular epithelia, epithelia cells fit closely together to form continuous sheets. Lateral Contacts, including ______ junctions and _______, bind adjacent cells together at many points.
    • Tight
    • Desmosomes
  23. What is the function of have tight junctions in the epithelia?
    Keeps proteins in the apical region of the plasma membrane from diffusing into the basal region, helping to maintain its polarity.
  24. All epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by _____ tissue.
  25. The reticular lamina, just deep of the basal lamina, is a layer of _______ material containing a fine network of ______protein fibers that belong to the underlying connective tissue.
    • Extracellular
    • Collagen
  26. The basal lamina and the reticular lamina form the ______ membrane of the epithelial tissue/
    Basement membrane
  27. What defines the epithelial boundaries, resist stretching and tearing?
    Basal membrane
  28. An important characteristic of cancerous epithelial cells is their failure to respect the ______ boundary, which they penetrate to invade the tissues beneath.
    Basement membrane
  29. Epithelial tissue is ______(contains no blood vessels), but is ______(supplied by nervous fibers)
    • Avascular
    • Innervated
  30. Epithelial cells are nourished y substances diffused from _____ in the underlying connective tissue.
    Blood vessels
  31. Epithelium has a _____ regenerative capacity.
  32. If and when their apical-basal polarity and lateral contacts are destroyed, epithelial cells begin to . . .
    • Reproduce themselves rapidly.
    • As long as epithelial cells receive adequate nutrition, they can replace lost cells by cell division. 
  33. Keep in mind _____ shape when attempting to identify epithelial types
  34. Stratified epithelia are named according to the shape of the cell in the ____ layer.
  35. What are the functions of simple squamous epithelium?
    • Allows material to pass by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important,
    • Secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
  36. Where can you find simple squamous epithelium?
    • Kidney Glomeruli 
    • Air sacs of lungs
    • Lining of heart
    • Blood vessels 
    • Lymphatic vessels
    • Lining of ventral body cavities(serosae)
  37. Simplest of the epithelium?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  38. Describe simple cuboidal epithelium
    • Single layer
    • Cube-like cells
    • Large, spherical central nuclei
  39. What type of epithelial tissue has the function of secretion and absorption?
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  40. Where can you find simple cuboidal epithelium?
    • Kidney tubules
    • Ducts and secretory portions of small glands
    • Ovary surface
  41. What type of tissue is thin and permeable, allowing filtration or the exchange of substances by rapid diffusion as a priority?
    Simple squamous epithelium
  42. What are the two special sub-types of simple squamous epithelium?
    • Endothelium
    • Mesothelium
  43. Out of the two special sub-types of simple squamous epithelium, what is known as the inner covering?
  44. Out of the two special sub-types of simple squamous epithelium, capillaries consist exclusively of this?
  45. Out of the two special sub-types of simple squamous epithelium, which provides as a slick, friction-reducing lining in lymphatic vessels and hollow organs of the cardiovascular system?
  46. Out of the two special sub-types of simple squamous epithelium,which is known as middle covering?
  47. Out of the two special sub-types of simple squamous epithelium, which is found in serous membranes, membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs?
  48. Which type of simple epithelium tissue is known for it spherical nuclei stain darkly.
    Simple cuboidal epithelium
  49. Name the type of simple epithelium that is a single layer, tall, closely packed, with oval nuclei.
    Simple columnar epithelium
  50. Columnar cells are mostly associated with absorption and secretion, and the digestive lining has two distinct modifications that make it ideal for that function . . .
    • Dense microvilli on the apical surface of the absorptive cells
    • Tubular glands made primarily of cells that secrete mucus containing intestinal juice.
  51. Where can you find non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium?
    Lines most of the digestive tract (stomach to rectum)
  52. Where can you find ciliated simple columnar epithelium?
    • Lines small bronchi
    • Uterine tubes 
    • Regions of the uterus
  53. What is the function of simple columnar epithelium; non-ciliated?
    • absorption
    • secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances
  54. What is the function of simple columnar epithelium; ciliated?
    • Ciliated type propels mucus by ciliary action
    • absorption
    • secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances
  55. Describe pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
    • Single layer of cells of differing heights; some not reaching the free surface;
    • Nuclei seen at different levels
    • May contain mucus-secreting cells and bear cilia
  56. What is the function of pseudostratified columnar epithelium?
    Secrete substances, particularly mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
  57. Where can you find pseudostratified columnar epithelium tissue; non-ciliated?
    • Males' sperm-carrying ducts
    • Ducts of large glands
  58. Where can you find pseudostratified columnar epithelium tissue; ciliated?
    • Lines the trachea
    • Lines most of the upper respiratory tract
  59. Why did pseudostratified columnar epithelium get the name "pseudostratified"?
    Because the cell nuclei lie at different levels above the basement membrane, the tissue gives the false(pseudo)impression that several cell layers are present; hence "pseudostratified"
  60. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium: A ciliated version contains mucus-secreting ______ cells lines most of the respiratory tract. Here the _______propel sheets of dust-trapping mucus superiorly away from the lungs.
    • goblet
    • motile cilia
  61. Stratified epithelium are considerably ____ durable than simple epithelium.
  62. Stratified Squamous Epithelium tissue is found in areas subject to _____ and _____
    • Wear
    • Tear
  63. Stratified Squamous Epithelium: Deeper layer are usually ______ or ______ cells; surface layer are ______.
    • Cuboidal
    • Columnar
    • Squamous
  64. Because epithelium is depends on nutirents diffusing from _______ tissue, the epithelial cells  farther from the basement membrane are less ______. and those on the apical surface are often ______ and ______.
    • Deeper connective
    • Viable
    • Flatten 
    • Atrophied
  65. The outer layer of the skin; epidermis, is ______(hardened), meaning its surface contain ______, a tough protective protein.
    • Keratinized
    • Keratin
  66. Besides the outer layer of the skin; epidermis, all other stratified squamous epithelium is non-______.
  67. Where would you find stratified squamous epithelium in the body; keratinized and non-keratinized?
    • Keratinized: epidermis
    • Non-keratinized: Moist lining of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
  68. Stratified ______ epithelium is the most widespread of the stratified epithelium.
  69. This epithelium also occurs at transition areas or juntions between two types of epithelia.
    Stratified columnar epithelium
  70. What epithelium would you find rarely in the body, mainly found in the ducts of larger glands(sweat,mammary)?
    Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
  71. Describe stratified cuboidal epithelium.
    Two layers of cuboidal epithelial cells
  72. What epithelial tissue would you find only in small amounts in the pharynx, the male urethra, an lining some glandular ducts?
    Stratified columnar epithelium
  73. Transitional epithelium forms the lining of hollow ______organs, which stretch as they fill.
  74. What epithelium has this characteristic: When the organ is distended with urine, the epithelium thins from about 6 to 3 layers, and its dome-like apical cells flatten and become squamous-like?
    Transitional epithelium
  75. What epithelium tissue has dome-like apical cells?
    Transitional Epithelium
  76. What is the function of transitional epithelium?
    Stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ.
  77. What epithelial tissue lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra?
    Transitional Epithelium
  78. Define: Consists of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product.
  79. Glandular secretion: a _____based fluid that usually contains ______.

    There is variation
    • Aqueous
    • Proteins
  80. Glands are classified into two traits. What are they?
    • Where they release their product
    • Number of cell
  81. Classifying glands: where they come from; what is endocrine vs. exocrine?
    • Endo-"internally secreting"
    • Exo-"externally secreting"
  82. Classifying glands: Number of cells; what is unicellular vs. multi-cellular?
    • Uni: "one-celled"
    • Multi: "many celled"
  83. Unicellular glands are scattered within ______sheets.
  84. Unicellular glands are scattered within epithelial sheets. By contrast, most multi-cellular epithelial glands form by ______(inward growth) of an epithelial sheet into the underlying _____ tissue
    • Invagination
    • Connective
  85. Endocrine glands eventually lose their ____, they are often called  ____-less glands.
    • Ducts
    • Duct
  86. Which type of gland produce hormones?
  87. What are hormones?
    Messenger chemicals that they secrete by exocytosis directly into the extracellular matrix. From there the hormones enter the blood or lymphatic fluid and travel to a specific organ.
  88. How do hormones work?
    • They are secreted by endocrine glands by exocytosis.
    • They are absorbed into the blood or lymphatic vessels, they are carried to their target organ.
    • Each hormone prompts its target organ(s) to respond in some characteristic way.
  89. Describe the diffuse endocrine system.
    Most are compact multi-cellular organs, but some individual hormone-producing cells are scattered in the digestive tract lining(mucosa) and in the brain, giving rise to their collective description.
  90. Exocrine glands secrete their products onto ____ surface or into body _____.
    • Body
    • Cavities
  91. Exocrine; unicellular, secrete via _____.
  92. Exocrine; multi-cellular, secrete via _____.
    An epithelium-walled duct that transports the secretion to the epithelial surface.
  93. Liver secreting bile is an example of _____ glands
  94. Mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands are example of _____ glands
  95. Unicellular exocrine glands are _____ and ______ cells.
    • Mucous
    • Goblet
  96. Pancreas synthesizes digestive enzymes is an example of _____ glands at work
  97. Found in Unicellular Exocrine Glands: Once mucin is dissolved in water, it becomes . . .
  98. Found in Unicellular Exocrine Glands: Once mucin is dissolved in water, it becomes mucin, a ______ coating that protects and ______ surfaces.
    • Slimy
    • Lubricates
  99. Found in Unicellular Exocrine Glands: mucin is a complex _______ that dissolves in ______ when secreted.
    • Glyocoprotein
    • Water
  100. Found in Unicellular Exocrine Glands: what are goblet cells?
    Cup-like accumulation of mucin distends the top of the cell, making the cell look like a glass with a stem.
  101. Multi-cellular exocrine glands are classified by what 2 characteristics?
    • Duct Structure 
    • Type of secretion
  102. Multi-cellular exocrine glands; classified by duct structure: can be deeper classified into what 2 main classification.
    • Simple: Unbranched duct
    • Compound: Branched duct system
  103. Multi-cellular exocrine glands; compound, can be classified by it secretory units: . . .
    • Tubular: secretes from tubes
    • Alveolar(acinar): secretory cells form small, flask-like sacs
    • Tubular-alveolar: both types of secretory cells
  104. Multi-cellular exocrine glands;compound, alveolar can be used interchangeable with ______.
  105. Multi-cellular exocrine glands, ______tissue surrounds the secretory units.
    Supportive Connective
  106. In all but the simplest glands, ______ tissue surrounds the secretory unit, supplied by _____ and ______, and form a _______ that extends into the gland and divides it into _____.
    • Supportive Connective
    • Blood vessels
    • Nerve fibers
    • Fibrous Capsule
    • Lobes
  107. Multi-cellular exocrine glands secrete their product in different ways, so they can also be described functionally as _______, ________, ________.
    • Merocrine
    • Holocrine
    • Apocrine
  108. What Multi-cellular exocrine gland; mode of secretion does the pancreas, most sweat glands, and salivary glands belong to?
  109. What Multi-cellular exocrine gland; mode of secretion does "merely secrete"(secretory cells are unaltered) fall into?
  110. Oil Glands are an example of what mode of secretion?
  111. Describe holocrine secretion.
    • Accumulate till the rupture.
    • Secretions include the synthesis product plus dead cell fragments.
  112. What mode of secretion is found mainly in animals and is debated in the human body?
  113. What mode of secretion is like holocrine, accumulates, but in this case only beneath the surface. Eventually, the apex of the cell pinches off, releasing the secretory granules and a small amount of cytoplasm.
  114. Apocrine is like holocrine, it accumulates, but in this case only beneath the ____. Eventually, the ____ of the cell pinches off, releasing the secretory granules and a small amount of cytoplasm.
    • Surface
    • Apex
  115. What is a thought-to-be example of apocrine glands?
    Lactating mammary glands
  116. What are the 4 main classes of connective tissue?
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone 
    • Blood
  117. What are the main functions of connective tissue?
    • Binding and supporting
    • Protecting
    • Insulating
    • Storing fuel reserve
    • Transporting substances
  118. All connective tissue derives from ______
  119. Connective tissue runs the gamat of _______. Cartilage is _______. Dense connective tissue is _______ vascularized, and other types are rich.
    • Vascularity
    • Avascular 
    • Poorly
  120. Connective tissue can bear ______, withstand great _______, and endure _______.
    • Weight
    • Tension
    • Abuse
  121. Connective tissue is composed largely of ______.(non-living)
    Extracellular matrix
  122. What are the 3 main elements of connective tissue?
    • Ground substance
    • Fibers
    • Cells
  123. What is the prototype, or model connective tissue?

    All other connective tissue is just variations from this.
    Areolar Connective Tissue
  124. Concerning the composition of connective tissue, what is made up of unstructured material that fills up space between the cells and contains the fibers?
    Ground Substance
  125. Concerning the composition of extracellular substance for connective tissue, it is composed of what 3 main elements?
    • Interstitial(tissue)fluid
    • Cell adhesion protein 
    • Proteoglycans
  126. Concerning the composition of extracellular substance for connective tissue, cell adhesion protein serves as . . .
    A connective tissue glue that allows connective tissue cells to attach to matrix material
  127. Concerning the composition of extracellular substance for connective tissue, proteoglycans consist of a protein core to which ______ are attached.
  128. Concerning the composition of extracellular substance for connective tissue;


    Glycosaminoglycans(GAGs) consist mainly of what 2 elements

    What are they?
    • Chondroitin sulfate
    • Hyaluronic Acid

    They are large, negative charged polysaccharides
  129. Concerning the composition of extracellular substance for connective tissue;


    Glycosaminoglycans(GAGs) are trap ______, forming a  substance that varies from ______ to ________.
    • Water
    • Fluid
    • Viscous Gel
  130. Concerning the composition of extracellular substance for connective tissue:
    The fibers within the ground substance make it less _____ and _______ diffusion somewhat.
    • Pliable 
    • Hinder
  131. Collagen fibers are extremely ______ and provide _______ strength.
    • Tough
    • High tension
  132. Collagen is made from  ______ protein; ______.
    • Fiberous
    • Collagen
  133. Collagen molecules secreted from the fibrous protein called collagen, are secreted into the ________, where they assemble _________ into _________ fibrils.
    • Extracellular space
    • Spontanously 
    • Cross-linked
  134. What are long, thin, elastic fibers that form branching networks in the extracellular matrix?
    Elastic fibers
  135. Elastic fibers contain a rubber-like protein called ______, that allows them to _______ and _______ like rubber bands.
    • Elastin
    • Stretch 
    • Recoil
  136. Connective tissue can stretch only so much before its thick, rope-like collagen fibers become taunt. Then, when tension lets up, _____ fibers snap the connective tissue back into its original place.
  137. What are short, fine, collagenous fiber (with slight difference chemically and in form)?
    Reticular Fibers
  138. What fiber branches extensively, forming delicate networks that surround small blood vessels and support the soft tissue of organs?
    Reticular fibers
  139. What fiber is particularly abundant where connective tissue is next to another type of tissue?
    Reticular fibers
  140. When categorizing cells in connective tissue, the following mean:
    • (-blast): Immature cell
    • (-cyte): Matured cell
  141. (-blast): Immature cell; in connective tissue is actively______ cells. They secrete the _________ and the _______ characteristics.of their particular matrix.
    • Mitotic
    • Ground Substance
    • Fiber
  142. The primary -blast cells are:
    1)Connective Tissue Proper: Fibroblast
    2)Cartilage: _______
    3)Bone: Osteoblast
  143. The primary -blast cells are:

    1)Connective Tissue Proper: ________
    2)Cartilage: Chondroblast
    3)Bone: Osteoblast
  144. The primary -blast cells are:

    1)Connective Tissue Proper: Fibroblast
    2)Cartilage: Chondroblast
    3)Bone: _______
  145. The primary -blast cells are:

    1)Connective Tissue Proper: _______
    2)Cartilage: _______
    3)Bone: _______
    • Fibroblast
    • Chondroblast
    • Osteoblast
  146. What -blast cell produces blood cells?
    Hemopoietic stem cells
  147. In connective tissue, -blast cells become mature once . . . 
    What is there function afterwards?
    • Mature(-cyte)
    • The mature cells maintain the health of the matrix.

    However, if the health of the matrix is injured, they can easily revert to their more active state to repair and regenerate the matrix.
  148. Connective tissue may have an assortment of other cells types, such as . . .
    • Fat cells
    • White Blood cells
    • Mast cells
    • Macrophages
  149. Concerning connective tissue, ______cells are concerned with tissue response to injury.
    White blood
  150. Concerning connective tissue, ______cells are typically clustered along blood vessels. _____-shaped cells, they detect _________.
    • Mast
    • Oval
    • Foreign Microorganisms
  151. Concerning connective tissue, ______cells initiate the local inflammation responses.
  152. Concerning connective tissue, ______cells are large, irregular shaped cells, consume dead tissue cells. Called the "big eaters"
  153. Mast cells contains secretory granules with chemicals that mediate inflammation especially in severe allergies. These chemicals include . . .
    • Heparin
    • Histamine 
    • Proteases
  154. Mast cells contains secretory granules with chemicals that mediate inflammation especially in severe allergies. Histamine is a substance that make capillaries ______.
  155. Mast cells contains secretory granules with chemicals that mediate inflammation especially in severe allergies. Heparin is a _______ that prevents ______ when free in the bloodstream.
    • Anticoagulant 
    • Blood clotting
  156. What is the common embryonic tissue?
  157. Describe mesenchyme.
    • Fluid ground substance
    • Fine sparse fibers
    • Star-shaped Mesenchymal cells
  158. All mature connective tissue(except bone, cartilage, and blood) are ________.

    Connective tissue proper=2 subclasses: ______ connective and _____ connective tissue
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Loose
    • Dense
  159. Under connective tissue proper, loose connective tissues include:
    • Areolar 
    • Adipose
    • Reticular
  160. Under connective tissue proper, dense connective tissues include:
    • Dense regular
    • Dense irregular
    • Elastic
  161. Areolar connective tissue; the model connective tissue, has the functions of all connectives tissues. Functions Include:
    • Supporting and binding other tissues(fiber jobs)
    • Holding body fluids(the ground substance's role)
    • Defending against infections(white blood cells)
    • Storing nutrients as fats(fat cells)
  162. Concerning areolar connective tissue, what are flat branching cells that appear spindle shaped, predominate?
  163. Concerning areolar connective tissue, numerous _______ are also seen and present a formidable barrier to invading microorganisms.
  164. Concerning areolar connective tissue, ______cells appear singly or in clusters.
    Fat cells
  165. Concerning areolar connective tissue, _______ are identified by the large, darkly stained cytoplasmic granules that often obscure their nuclei.
    Mast cells
  166. Concerning areolar connective tissue,due to its loose nature, areolar connective tissue provides a _______ of water and ______ for surrounding tissues.
    • Reservoir 
    • Salts
  167. What tissue makes up the lamina propria?
    Areolar connective tissue
  168. Where can you find areolar connective tissue?
    • Widely distributed under epithelia of body
    • Forms lamina propria of mucus membranes
    • Packages organs
    • Surrounds capillaries
  169. Concerning areolar connective tissue, due to it high content of ________, it makes its ground matrix viscous, like molasses, which hinders the movement of cells through it.
    Hyaluronic Acid
  170. Concerning areolar connective tissue, due to it high content of Hyaluronic Acid, it makes its ground matrix viscous, like molasses, which . . .
    hinders the movement of cells through it.
  171. Concerning areolar connective tissue, due to it high content of Hyaluronic Acid, some white blood cells secrete the enzyme; _______, to liquefy the ground substance and ease the passage.
  172. Adipose tissue is _______vascular, indicating its _____metabolic activity.
    • Highly
    • High
  173. Adipose tissue is used as . . .
    • Shock absorber 
    • Insulator 
    • Energy storage site
  174. Fat is a _____ conductor of heat. Meaning it helps _____ heat loss from the body.
    • Poor
    • Prevent
  175. Normally adipose tissue is described as white fat, but there is also brown fat. Brown fat is abundant in ______, which uses the lipid fuels to heat the bloodstream to warm the body.
  176. Normally adipose tissue is described as white fat, but there is also brown fat. Brown fat's scant deposits occur on . . .
    • Collar bones
    • Neck
    • Abdomen
    • Around the spine
  177. The richly vascular _______ fat occurs mainly in babies who(as yet)lack the ability to produce body heat by shivering.
  178. Reticular loose connective tissue is described as a labyrinth-like ______("bed" or "mattress"), or internal framework, that can support many free ______.
    • Stroma
    • Blood cells
  179. Fibroblast found in the reticular network of reticular tissue is called
    reticular cells
  180. Reticular loose connective tissue is similar to _______ loose connective tissue, with the exception that the only fiber in reticular tissue is ______ fibers.
    • Areolar 
    • Reticular
  181. What type of connective tissue can be found in lymphoid organs primarily?
    Reticular loose connective tissue
  182. Fibrous connective tissue is used interchangeably with _________ connective tissues
  183. Fibrous connective tissue is used interchangeably with dense connective tissues since . . .
    All three have fibers as their prominent element.
  184. Dense regular connective tissue is closely package _____ fibers running in the ______ direction, parallel to the ______ of pull.
    • Collagen
    • Same
    • Direction
  185. Dense regular connective tissue is ______ vascular
  186. The wavy collagen fibers feature of dense regular connective tissue allows
    the tissue to stretch a little, but once the fibers strengthen of, there is no further "give" to this tissue.
  187. What connective tissue forms tendons?
    Dense regular
  188. Tendons attach ______ to ______.
    • Muscles 
    • Bones
  189. Flat;sheet-like tendons are called _______.
  190. Dense regular tissue forms a _______, a fibrous membrane that wraps around muscle, groups of muscle, blood vessels, and nerves, binding them together like plastic
  191. Dense regular connective tissue makes ligaments and tendons. Ligaments have more ______ than tendons and slightly more _____.
    • Elastic fibers
    • Stretchy
  192. Simple Columnar Epithelium found in the small intestine mucosa contains mucus of _______ cells.
  193. With which portion of an epithelial cell in the stomach would food be in contact?

    A) Basal Surface
    B) Apical Surface
    C) Fibroblasts
    D) Endothelium
    B) Apical Surface
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  194. The mucus-secreting cells prevalent in simple columnar epithelium are known as

    A) Mast cells
    B) Goblet Cells
    C) Fibroblast
    D) Chondroblast
    B) Goblet Cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. Which type of glandular epithelia has "local influence"?
  196. Which connective tissue is least and most vascular?
    • Least: Cartilage
    • Most: Bone
  197. Define areola.
    Small open space
  198. Dense irregular tissue compared to dense regular:

    Collagen fibers ______ and arranged  ______
    Collagen fibers run in more than one _____.
    • Thicker
    • Irregularly 
    • Plane
  199. What is the main cell in dense regular and irregular connective tissue?
  200. Where can you find dense irregular connective tissue?
    • Fibrous capsules of organs and of joints;
    • Dermis of the skin
    • Submucosa of digestive tract.
  201. What is the function of elastic; dense connective tissue?
    • Allows for tissue to recoil after stretching
    • Maintains pulsatile flow of blood through arteries
    • Aids passive recoil of lungs following inspiration
  202. Where can you find elastic; dense connective tissue?
    • Wall of large arteries(aorta)
    • Walls of the bronchial tubes
  203. You would expect to find _____ fibers in areas that undergo a lot of stretch and rebound.
  204. Cartilage receives its nutrients from ______ from _______ located in the connective tissue layer(periochondrium)surrounding it.
    • Diffusion
    • Blood vessels
  205. What is the primary cell in cartilage?
  206. ______, mature cartilage cells, are typically found in small groups within cavities called ______.
    • Chondrocytes
    • Lacunae
  207. What is the most abundant cartilage in the body?
  208. What cartilage has the function of supporting and reinforcing,
    Serving as a resilient cushion,
    Resisting compression stress?
    Hyaline Cartilage
  209. Cartilage that covers ends of long bones in joint cavities, forms costal cartilages of the ribs, cartilage of the nose, trachea, and larynx?
    Hyaline Cartilage
  210. What is the term used for hyaline cartilage at the ends of long bones that lines the outside?
    Articular cartilage
  211. Cartilage that maintains the shape of a structure while maintaining flexibility?
  212. What type of cartilage would be found in the epiglottis or pinna(external ear)of the ear?
    Elastic cartilage
  213. Compared to hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage has a higher concentration of _______.
    Elastic fibers
  214. Fibrocartilage can be found in . . .
    • Intervertebral Discs
    • Public synthesis
    • Discs of knee joints
  215. What cartilage has tensile strength to allow absorption of compression shock?
  216. Compared to hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage's matrix  is _____ firm; ____ collagen fibers ______.
    • Less
    • Thick
    • Predominant
  217. Bone is innervated via _______.
    Central Canals
  218. Osteocytes lie in _______.
  219. Bone is hard and calcified
    Bone is hard and calcified
  220. What is the function of bone tissue?
    Stores calcium, other minerals, and fat.
  221. Blood formation term?
  222. Why is blood classified as connective tissue?
    Originated from mesenchyme cells
  223. Which muscle tissue is voluntary?
    Skeletal Muscle
  224. _______ tissue that is highly cellular, well-vascular, responsible for body movement?
  225. Muscle cells possess myofilaments, elaborate networks of the ______ and _______ filaments that bring about movement or contraction in all cell types.
    • Actin
    • Myosin
  226. Muscle cells possess ________, elaborate networks of the actin and myosin filaments that bring about movement or contraction in all cell types.
  227. Cutaneous membranes are _____, Mucus and serous are wet.
  228. 3 types of membranes?
    • Cutaneous
    • Serous 
    • Mucous
  229. Essentially, all membranes are _____-cellular sheets composed of at least __ types of tissue: an ______ bound to an underlying layer of _______ tissue.
    • Multi-
    • Epithelium
    • Connective
  230. ______ membranes line all body cavities that open to the outside of the body, they are moist, contain either stratified cubiodal or columnar epithelium. Made for absorption and secretion.
  231. Mucus membranes line all body cavities that ____________________, they are moist, contain either stratified _________ epithelium. Made for _______ and ________.
    • open to the outside of the body
    • cubiodal or columnar
    • absorption
    • secretion
  232. _______membranes are found in closed ventral body cavities, consist of simple squamous epithelium and areolar loose connective tissue, moist.
  233. Serous membranes are found in _________ body cavities, consist of simple ________ epithelium and _______ loose connective tissue, moist.
    • closed ventral
    • squamous
    • areolar
  234. All of the following are usually characteristics of epithelium except: __________.
    b.abundant extracellular material
    c.highly mitotic
    d.tight junctions
  235. Goblet cells are found in this kind of epithelium.

    a.Simple squamous
    b.Simple cuboidal
    d.Simple columnar
  236. Which of the following is the most widespread epithelium?

    a.Simple cuboidal
    b.Stratified squamous
    c.Simple columnar
    d.Stratified cuboidal
  237. Glands that secrete by rupture of cells are classified as __________.

  238. An epithelial tissue with four layers of cells, in which the apical layer cells are flat and the basal layer cells are taller than they are wide, would be classified as _________.

    a.simple squamous
    b.simple columnar
    c.stratified squamous
    d.stratified columnar
  239. Which of the following is not a connective tissue?

    d.Smooth muscle
  240. Calcium salts are found in which connective tissue?

    a.Dense fibrous
    All of the above have calcium salts
  241. This is the most widespread connective tissue and serves as filler material between other tissues.

    b.Dense irregular
    d.Hyaline cartilage
  242. Which of the following is not associated with cartilage?

    c.Blood vessels
    d.Collagen fibers
  243. Which of the following cells typically cluster along blood vessels and detect foreign microorganisms?

    b.Mast cells
    c.Hematopoietic stem cells
  244. Which type of muscle is voluntary?

    d.Skeletal and cardiac
  245. Multinucleated cells predominate in which muscle tissue?

    d.Skeletal and cardiac
  246. The two contractile proteins found in muscle cells are: _________.

    a.collagen and elastin
    b.keratin and myosin
    c.actin and myosin
    d.actin and elastin
  247. Muscle tissue can be described as: _________.

    a.avascular and innervated
    b.avascular and noninnervated
    c.vascular and innervated
    d.vascular and noninnervated
  248. Intercalated discs are a unique feature of which muscle tissue?

    d.Skeletal and cardiac
  249. Membranes that line open body cavities are classified as _______.

  250. Body membranes are usually composed of which two tissues?

    a.Connective and muscle
    b.Nervous and muscle
    c.Epithelial and connective
    d.Epithelial and muscle
  251. Which of the following is classified as a dry membrane?

  252. During organization of tissue repair, a blood clot is replaced by ___________.

    a.scar tissue
    b.granulation tissue
    c.a scab
    d.areolar tissue
  253. Regeneration is highly unlikely in which of the following tissues?

    a.Simple columnar epithelium
    c.Areolar connective tissue
    d.Cardiac muscle
  254. Of the four major types of tissues, which type forms boundaries between different environments?

  255. What would a glandular structure that has three ducts and flasklike sacs be termed?

    a.Compound alveolar
    b.Simple branched tubular
    c.Compound tubular
    d.Simple branched alveolar
  256. Of the four major tissue types, which type is avascular?

  257. Stroma consists of what specific tissue type?

    a.Dense irregular connective tissue
    b.Reticular connective tissue
    c.Simple cuboidal epithelium
    d.Smooth muscle
  258. The epiglottis and external ear are composed of which kind of cartilage?

  259. Chemotherapy destroys cells in mitosis. Which type of tissue would be most affected by chemotherapy?

  260. Steps of Tissue Repair
    • Inflammation sets the stage
    • Organization restores the blood supply
    • Regeneration
  261. Steps of Tissue Repair
    1)Inflammation sets the stage
    • Clotting occurs
    • Scar formed
  262. Steps of Tissue Repair
    2)Organization restores the blood supply
    Blood clot is replaced by granulated tissue
  263. 2 tissues have no regenerative capabilites
    • Cardiac
    • Nervous

Card Set Information

A&P 1 Exam 2: Tissues
2016-10-16 11:14:36
anatomy physiology

Chapters 4
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