Definitions

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Author:
jessy
ID:
32468
Filename:
Definitions
Updated:
2010-09-02 18:52:52
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Arguments Chapter One
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Description:
Different types of arguments and their definitions.
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  1. An ARGUMENT is
    a set of propositions such that the truth of one (called "the conclusion") is supposed to be supported by the truth of the others (called "the premises")
  2. An argument is DEDUCTIVE
    if and only if it supposes that if the premises of the argument were true, then its conclusion would have to be true.
  3. A deductive argument is VALID
    • a) if and only if it is impossible for the premises to be true and conclusion false
    • b) if the premises of the argument were true, then the conclusion would have to be true
  4. A deductive argument is INVALID
    if and only if it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
  5. A deductive argument is SOUND
    if and only if it is both valid and all its premises are actually true
  6. A deductive argument is UNSOUND
    if and only if it is either invalid or has at least one false premise
  7. An argument is INDUCTIVE
    if and only if its conclusion is supposed to be made more likely to be true than to be false given the truth of its premises

    (suppose that if the premises were true then the conclusion would be more likely to be true than to be false)
  8. An inductive argument is STRONG
    if and only if were the premises true, the conclusion would be more likely to be true than to be false
  9. An inductive argument is WEAK
    if and only if, if the premises were true the conclusion would be less likely (or no more likely) to be true than to be false
  10. An inductive argument is GOOD
    if and only if it is both strong and all its premises are actually true
  11. An inductive argument is BAD
    if and only if it is either weak or has at least one false premise
  12. What is the smallest number of propositions that can make up an argument? Why?
    2, because one is the premise, and one is the conclusion being supported by the premise
  13. A PREMISE is
    a proposition whose truth is supposed to give support to the truth of the conclusion
  14. A CONCLUSION is
    a proposition in an argument whose truth is supposed to be supported by the truth of the premises
  15. What are the 2 standards for evaluating arguments?
    • a) Do the premises support the conclusion?
    • b) Are the premises all actually true?

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