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  1. Barognosis - define; name dysfunction
    • Similar size/shape objects placed in hand w/different gradations of weight
    • Abarognosis - Inability to identify weight
  2. Stereognosis
    Familiar objects placed in hand by manipulation & touch
  3. Akinesia
    Inability to initiate movement
  4. Allodynia
    • Pain from non-noxious stimuli that don’t usually provoke pain (ex: light touch)
    • Seen w/nn injury or transection
  5. Analgesia
    Complete loss of pain
  6. Anesthesia
    Loses of sensation
  7. Anomia - define
    Form of aphasia in which the patient is unable to recall the names of everyday objects
  8. Anosmia
    Loss of smell
  9. Anosognosia - define
    Denial, neglect & lack of awareness of presence of severity of one’s paralysis
  10. Anopsia
    Defect in vision
  11. Apraxia - define (2); name 2 types; in which type can pt do spontaneously
    • Inability to perform movements previously learned
    • Lack of ability to carry out purposeful movement
    • Commonly manifested by the confusion of objects with their purposes
    • Ideational apraxia - Person no longer gets "idea" of how to do something; Cannot perform motor task automatically or on command
    • Ideomotor apraxia - Person cannot do a task on command, but can do it spontaneously
  12. Asynergia
    Inability to move mms together in a coordinated manner
  13. Ataxia
    Uncoordinated movement, especially gait
  14. Athetosis - what is it? Seen w/what dysfunction? Damage to what?
    • Slow, involuntary, worm-like, twisting motions
    • Seen w/CP
    • Damage to basal ganglia
  15. Causalgia
    • Burning sensations which are painful
    • Associated w/complex regional pain syndrome
  16. Chorea - what is it? Seen w/what dysfunction?
    • Rapid, involuntary jerky movements
    • Seen w/Hungtington's disease
  17. Dysdiadokinesia
    Impaired ability to perform rapid alternating movements
  18. Dyskinesia
    Involuntary movements
  19. Dysmetria - describe; seen w/what dysfunction; Interventions (2); CONTRA intervention (1)
    • Coordination problem - pt unable to judge distance or range of movement - pt lacks speed control
    • Seen w/cerebellar dysfunction
    • Interventions - PNF dynamic reversals; weighted cuffs can help slow movement
    • CONTRA - low resistance, fast speed isokinetic
  20. Dysphagia
    Inability to swallow
  21. Dysphonia
    Hoarseness
  22. Dyssynergia - describe + seen w/what dysfunction
    • Impaired ability to do complex movements
    • Seen w/cerebellar disorders
  23. Dystonia is what?
    Involuntary movements with sustained contractions
  24. Exophthalmos
    Eyes appear to be bulging out of orbits
  25. Graphesthesia
    Traced on skin - #, letter, symbol
  26. Hypertropia
    Misalignment of the eyes (strabismus)
  27. Myopia
    Nearsightedness
  28. Ptosis
    Upper eyelid droops
  29. Scotoma
    Partially diminished vision - black/blind spot
  30. Somatognosia
    Lack of awareness of relationship of one's own body parts or the body parts of others
  31. Herpes zoster (shingles) - 3
    • An acute, painful mononeuropathy caused by varicella zoster virus
    • Last - 10 days - 5 weeks
    • Inflammation to Posterior root ganglion
  32. AIDS - t-cells level
    T-cells below 200
  33. AIDS - neuromuscular changes - 5
    • Motor ataxia
    • Paresis
    • Pronounced gait disturbances
    • Loss of fine motor coordination
    • Peripheral neuropathy w/distal pain & sensory loss (distal but not widespread)
  34. HIV - cels involved; early signs; meds; test; how long for antibodies to show up in blood
    • Cells involved - CD4 (500-1,200), T-lymphocytes
    • Early signs - flu-like symptoms w/rash, fever
    • Meds - HAART, given when t-cell count is >500
    • Test - Western blot test
    • Antibodies in blood - 2 wks-6 months
  35. HIV therex parameters - 4
    • Frequency - 3-4/wk
    • Intensity - 40-60%
    • Resistance therex - moderate levels (8-10 times)
    • Time - total: 30-60 min/day
  36. Myasthenia gravis - define; key word; 2 extra problems; Tx
    • Autoimmune disorder that DEC ACh receptors @ end plate
    • Fatigability - Muscular strength worse w/continuing contraction, improved w/rest
    • Proximal mm weakness
    • Chewing & swallowing problems
    • Eye mm weakness, Diplopia, Ptosis
    • Functionally similar to myopathies - diff w/climbing stairs/ rising from chair, lifting
    • Tx: energy conservation, mild stretching, MORNING appt
  37. Myasthenic crisis - define; S/S (4)
    • Myasthenia gravis w/respir­atory failure
    • Medical emergency
    • INC weakness
    • Difficulty talking, swallowing, breathing
  38. Cheyne Stokes respiration
    • Bizzare breathing pattern
    • Period of apnea (10-60 sec) --> gradually INC then DEC depth & frequency of respirations
  39. Phantom limb
    • Pain in limb following amputation of that limb
    • Described as cramped &jQuery110103762150553088863_1483380703103?
  40. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CPRX) - define; pain; I vs II; CONTRA early, do what instead
    • Pain maintained by SNS d/t traumatic injury
    • Pain disproportionate to injury
    • Causalgia (burning pain)
    • Hypersensitivity to light touch
    • Coldness
    • Sweating
    • CPRS II involves nn injury
    • Tx - CONTRAINDICATED in early - PROM; DON’T tolerate stretching; do AROM to DEC contractures
  41. Fibromyalgia - describe; pain where; symptoms how long; 2 key word symptoms
    • Nonarticular rheumatic disease of unknown origin
    • Onset - 14-68, Females>males
    • Axial PAIN & at least 11 of 18 tender point spots
    • Symptoms > 3 months
    • Sleeping disorders + Restless leg syndrome
  42. Fibromyalgia - Tender points - 8
    • Occiput
    • Low cervical area
    • Supraspinatus
    • 2nd rib
    • Lateral epicondyle
    • Glutes
    • Greater trochanter
    • Knee
  43. Fibromyalgia - Tx (3) + Contraindication (1)
    • Aquatic therapy
    • 3-5 min exercise sessions
    • Gentle stretching
    • Contraindication - Weight lifting
  44. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - S/S + Initial PT
    • Similar to fibromyalgia w/hallmark feature of FATIGUE vs pain as in fibromyalgia
    • Frequent sore throat
    • Tender lymph nodes
    • MM pain
    • Sleep that isn’t refreshing
    • Multijoint pain w/o swelling
    • Short-term memory impairments
    • INITIAL PT - 5 MIN (progress to 40-60 min)
  45. Spasticity - speed
    Velocity dependent, w/SLOWING of movement w/faster speeds
  46. Test for spasticity - Name & Score range
    • Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS)
    • 0 - No INC in tone
    • 1 - Slight INC in tone w/Min resistance @ end range
    • 1+ - Slight INC w/min resistance through <1/2 ROM
    • 2 - Marked INC through most ROM; Part easily moved
    • 3 - Considerable INC; PROM difficult; Rigid in flexion/extension
  47. NMSE (Mini Mental State Examination) - describe test; scores - mild, mod, severe
    • Assesess mental status
    • 11-questions - orientation, registration, attention & calculation, recall, & language
    • Maximum score = 30
    • Mild - 21-24

    • Moderate 16-20

    • Severe <15
  48. Post polio - define; 2 non MSK symptoms; PT
    • Asymmetrical mm weakness/atrophy/fatigue
    • Excessive fatigue & DEC endurance - not related to activity levels & doesn't recover w/usual rest
    • Cold intolerance, Sleep disturbances
    • PT - Low intensity (NOT to fatigue); STOP w/pain/weakness
  49. Guillain-Barre Syndrome - define; sensory/motor; what is absent? test findings; cardiac problems
    • ACUTE LMN polyneuropathy
    • Sensory (stocking/glove) + Motor (distal to proximal)
    • DTR - DEC/absent
    • Peaks @ 4 wks
    • Recovery - up to 1 yr w/mild weakness persisting
    • Test - CFS w/findings of INC protein + little /no lymphocytes
    • Cardiac - Tachycardia; Abnormalities in cardiac rhythm; BP changes
  50. ALS - define; sensory/motor; PT; PT CONTRA
    • UMN + LMN + Cranial nn
    • Also known as Lou Gehrig's disease
    • Onset - over 50; Males 2:1
    • Motor impairment (ASYMETRICAL)/ SENSORY INTACT
    • Weakness appears in hands first - CLAW hand
    • UMN signs - regular + Hoffman's sign + Bulbar sign
    • PT - low level resistance (Swimming, Walking, Stationary bike @ submax levels); PNF w/o resistance
    • PT Contraindication — only 1/2 motor units are left
  51. S/S of Bulbar sign in ALS? - 2
    • Weakness in mms of speech, chewing, swallowing
    • Tongue fasciculations
  52. ALS - LMN signs - 5
    • Gradual asymmetrical distal to proximal weakness > in extensor mms
    • MM atrophy
    • Cramping
    • Fasciculations
    • Claw hand
  53. ALS - cognition
    Normal, similar to locked-in syndrome in CVA
  54. Bells Palsy - define; sensory/motor;
    • Inflammatory response of facial nn (CN VII)
    • One-sided paralysis of mms of facial expression
    • Sensory - NORMAL
    • S/S - inability to close eye; mouth droops; loss of control of salivation; DEC taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue
  55. Sensory intact w/what pathologies?
    • ALS
    • Postpolio
    • Bell’s palsy
  56. Proximal weakness w/what pathologies?
    Myasthenia Gravis
  57. Distal weakness w/what pathologies?
    Guillain-Barre
  58. Head down, prone over large ball - what can it help with? - 2
    • Activate postural extensors of neck, trunk & proximal jts
    • Soothing effect for sympathetic responses
  59. What facilitates postural tone?
    Fast spinning
  60. Head trauma & pt is unresponsive - do what?
    MEDICAL EMERGENCY when unresponsive
  61. INC cerebral edema - S/S - 3
    • EMRGENCY
    • Vomiting
    • Irritable
    • Lethargic
  62. Organ transplants - S/S organ being rejected - 3
    • Weakness
    • Unsteady gait
    • DEC proprioception
  63. Traumatic nerve injury from mildest to most severe
    • Neurapraxia (Class 1)
    • Axonotmesis (Class 2)
    • Neurotmesis (Class 3)
  64. Neurapraxia - 3
    • LOCALIZED injury to nn causes a transient loss of function
    • Recovery - Rapid & complete (4-6 wks)
    • Ex: P injuries, Conduc­tion block ischemia
  65. Axonotmesis - 5
    • REVERSIBLE injury to axon of nn 
    • Loss of function & wallerian degeneration distal to lesion 
    • Spontaneous recovery - NN regeneration distal to site @ 1mm/day
    • Surgery may be required
    • Ex: Traction, Compression, Crush injury
  66. Neurotmesis - 4
    • IRREVERSIBLE complete transaction of nn trunk w/complete loss of function
    • Flaccid paralysis, wasting of mm, total loss of sensation supplied by nn
    • Surgery needed - proximal 1st - 1mm/day
    • First to recover is SENSORY
  67. Anterior horn cell injury - 4
    • Sensory - intact
    • Motor - Weakness, Atrophy, Fasciculations
    • DTR - DEC
    • Ex: ALS, Poliomyelitis
  68. Neuromuscular junction injury - 4
    • Sensory - Intact
    • Motor - Fatigue > weakness
    • DTR - Normal
    • Ex: Myasthenia Gravis
  69. Neuroma - describe
    • Abnormal growth of cells
    • D/t Vasculitis, AIDs, Amyloidosis
  70. Polyneuropathy - describe - 3
    • Symmetrical involvement
    • 2/t pathology, not trauma
    • Distal segments earlier & more involved than proximal
  71. Major difference between myopathies & neuropathies
    • Myopathy - proximal weakness
    • Neuropathy - distal weakness
  72. Mononeuropathy Multiplex - describe
    • Involvement of multiple, random nns (Ex: 1 UE, 1 LE, etc.) - NO PATTERN
    • D/t VASCULAR
  73. Seizure - do what? - 4
    • Position in side-lying/turn head to side - to avoid aspiration
    • Check for an open airway
    • Call emergency services
    • Wait for tonic/clonic activity to subside before starting artificial ventilation
  74. UMNL - S/S - 6
    • INC tone
    • Hyperreflexia
    • MM spasms
    • (+) Babinski
    • Dyssynergia
    • Timing deficits
  75. LMNL - S/S - 5
    • DEC tone (hypotonia) or flaccidity
    • Hyporeflexia or absent reflexes
    • MM weakness
    • Fasciculations
    • Neurogenic atrophy
  76. Intention tremor - define; occur when?
    Involuntary oscillatory movements - occur during VOLUNTARY movement
  77. Lumbar puncture - @ what level? Purpose (2); Complications (4)
    • Below level of L1-L2
    • Purpose - Withdraw CSF for Chemical analysis + Measure intracranial P

    • Complications:
    • Severe HA caused by CSF leakage (relieved by lying down)
    • Infection
    • Epidural hematoma
    • Uncal herniation
  78. DEC Intracranial P in CSF from lumbar puncture - why? (2)
    • Leakage of CSF
    • Severe dehydration
  79. INC intracranial P - S/S (3); what Cranial nns involved? (2)
    • DEC consciousness
    • Slowing of pulse
    • Cheyne-stokes respirations

    CNII (papilledema) & CNIII (dilation of pupils)
  80. What diagnostic test is best for acute stroke? Why?
    • CT (computed tomography)
    • Detects cerebral edema within 30 min after occlusion & infarction within 2-6 hrs
  81. What diagnostic test for viewing arteries of brain?
    MRA = Magnetic resonance angiography
  82. Myelography - define; for what? Complications
    X-rays of spine after injection of air or dye into subarachnoid space

    Delineates abnormalities impinging on subarachnoid space

    Complication - meningeal irritation from dye
  83. Ventriculography - define; for what? (2)
    X-rays of skull after injection of air into lateral ventricles

    • Useful for:
    • Localizing tumors
    • INC intracranial P
  84. Pacinian corpuscles - detect what? - 2
    • Vibration
    • Acceleration
  85. Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles - detect what? - 1
    Jt compression
  86. Ruffini endings - detect what? - 1
    Jt stretching
  87. Free nerve endings - detect what? - 1
    Pain

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Author:
Tanuisha
ID:
324686
Filename:
Neuro_ALL
Updated:
2017-01-12 23:36:55
Tags:
Neuro ALL
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Neuro_ALL
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