Neurons and nervous systems

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  1. The two categories of the nervous systems cells
    • neurons 
    • glial cells
  2. Neurons, or ______ cells, are ______. Neurons generate and transmit electrical signals called ______ _______
    • nerve cells are excitable 
    • action potentials
  3. Glia
    aka glial cells, provide support and maintain extracellular environment
  4. Nerve
    a bundle of axons from different neuorns
  5. The three structural classifications of neurons
    • multipolar 
    • bipolar 
    • unipolar
  6. multipolar
    • possess more than two processes
    • numerous dendrites and one axon
  7. Bipolar
    • possess two processes
    • rare
    • found in some special sensory organs
  8. Unipolar
    • aka pseudounipolar
    • possess one short single process
    • start as bipolar neurons during development
  9. Multipolar neurons have many processes that extend from the ______ _____; all are ______ except for a single ____.
    • cell body 
    • dendrites
    • axon
  10. Bipolar neurons have two processes that extend from the ____ _____. One is a fused _______ while the other is an _____.
    • cell body
    • dendrite 
    • axon
  11. Unipolar neurons have one process that forms _______ & ______ processes. Together both comprise an _____.
    • peripheral & central 
    • axon
  12. The most abundant neuron in the body is ______. Where is it also the major neuron type?
    • Multipolar
    • Major neuron type of the CNS
  13. The bipolar neuron is _____, and found in special sensory organs. Name 4
    rare

    • eye
    • mucosa
    • olfactory
    • ear
  14. The unipolar neuron is mainly found in the ____. Common only in _____ ____ ____ of the spinal cord and _______ ______ of cranial nerves
    • PNS
    • dorsal root ganglia
    • sensory ganglia
  15. Name two ways neurons alter membrane potentials
    • Electrical synapse 
    • Gated ion channels
  16. Three types of gated ion channels
    • voltage gated channels
    • chemically gated channels
    • mechanically gated channels
  17. What are the four major ions in neurons
    • Na+
    • K+
    • Ca++
    • Cl-
  18. Membrane potential
    the electrical potential/ charge difference across the membrane
  19. Resting membrane potential
    the membrane potential of a resting neuron
  20. An action potential or ______ ______ is a rapid large change in the _____ ______.
    • nerve impulse 
    • membrane potential
  21. Action potentials are generated by ______ & _______ of ___ ______
    • opening & closing 
    • ion channels
  22. Graded membrane potentials are changes from the ______ _______
    resting potentials
  23. Graded potentials are a means of ______ input. The membrane can respond proportionally to _______ or _______.
    • integrating 
    • depolarization
    • hyperpolarization
  24. EPSP
    IPSP
    • excitatory postsynaptic potential
    • inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  25. Electrochemical gradient
    The force/gradient created by concentration gradient and the voltage difference (electrical gradient) of the membrane
  26. What decides the direction and size of ion movement
    electrochemical gradient
  27. If a membrane were permeable to only K+ then K+ would diffuse down its _______ ______ until the _____ ______ across the membrane countered diffusion. The _____ _____ that counters net diffusion of K+ is called the ___ _______ ______. **Switch K+ with Na+ for this card occasionally.
    • concentration gradient
    • electrical potential
    • electrical potential 
    • K+ equilibrium potential (Ek)
  28. Also called the equilibrium potential
    nernst potential
  29. Potassium channels are open during the ______ _____ phase and are highly ______ to K+ ions
    • resting membrane
    • permeable
  30. K+ ions diffuse out of the cell along the _______ ______ and leave ______ _____ behind in the cell
    • concentration gradient
    • negative charges
  31. K+ ions diffuse back into the cell because?
    Because of the negative electrical potential
  32. Driving force equation
    driving force = (Vm-Eion)
  33. The sign of the driving force indicates the direction of _____ ____
    ionic flow
  34. If the driving force of Na+ is -70mV minus +55mV=-125mV, then we will have _____ _____ of _____ _____. So Na+ will _____ the cell
    • inward movement 
    • positive current
    • enter the cell
  35. If Driving force = +75 mV (MP) minus +55mV (ENa+) Driving force = +15mV for Na+, then there will be _____ _____ of ______ _____. Therefore, Na+ will ____ the cell.
    • outward movement 
    • positive current
    • leave
  36. If Driving force = -70mV (RMP) minus -90mV (EK+), the Driving force = +20mV, there will be ______ _____ of ______ ____. Therefore, positively charged K+ will ____ the cell.
    • outward movement
    • positive current
    • leave
  37. If Driving force = +55 mV (MP) minus -90mV (EK+) then Driving force = +145mV there will be ______ ______ of ______ _____. Therefore, K+ will _____ the cell.
    • outward movement 
    • positive current
    • leave
  38. If Driving force = -95 mV (MP) minus -90mV (EK+) has a Driving force = -5mV, there will be _____ _____ of ______ _____. Therefore K+ will ____ the cell
    • inward movement 
    • positive current
    • enter
  39. If Driving force = -70mV (RMP) minus -60mV (ECl-) has a Driving force = -10mV, there will be _____ _____ of _____ ____. Therefore, _______ charged Cl-will _____ the cell
    • inward movement 
    • positive current
    • negatively 
    • leave
  40. Driving force = -55 mV (MP) minus -60mV (ECl-) has a Driving force = +5 mV, there will be ______ ______ of _______ ______. Therefore, C- will ____ the cell.
    • outward movement
    • positivie current
    • enter
  41. Biological membranes are selectively permeable meaning:
    they allow some substances to pass, while others are restricted
  42. Depolarization phase
    • Na+ channels open
    • K+ channels closed
  43. Repolarizing phase
    • Na+ channels close 
    • K+ channels open
  44. Undershoot phase
    • Na+ channels closed
    • K+ channels still open 
    • gates haven't responded to repolarization
  45. _____-_____ ____ channels cannot open open during the refractory period
    Voltage-gated Na+ channels
  46. The 2 gates of Na+ channels
    • activation gate
    • inactivation gate
  47. activation gate
    closed at rest but opens quickly at threshold
  48. inactivation gate
    • open at rest and closes at threshold
    • responds more slowly
    • opens 1-2 milliseconds later than the activation gate closes
  49. The neuromuscular junction is a chemical synapse between ______ _____ & ______ _____ cells.
    • motor neurons 
    • skeletal muscle cells
  50. The motor neuron releases _______ from its axon terminals
    acetylcholine
  51. The postsynaptic membrane of the muscle cell is the _____ ____ _____
    motor end plate
  52. Endplate potentials (EPPs)
    Voltages due to synaptic transmission and measured in the muscle
  53. Main neurotransmitters in the CNS
    • ACh 
    • Glutamate
    • Glycine &GABA
    • Monoamines
    • Peptides
  54. Acetlycholine is found in _____ _____ & the ____
    • skeletal muscles 
    • CNS
  55. Glutamate is an ______ ____ ____ while glyicine and GABA are _____ ____ _____
    • excitatory amino acid
    • inhibitory amino acids
  56. Glutamate receptors are divided into classes because they can be ______ by other _____.
    • activated 
    • chemicals
  57. Three ionotropic glutamate receptors
    • NMDA
    • AMPA 
    • Kainate
  58. Glutamate is _____ and will result in _______. But the ______ of different receptors varies significantly.
    • excitatory 
    • depolarization 
    • timing
  59. AMPA receptors allow
    rapid influx of Na+
  60. NMDA receptors first require a ____ ______ through other _____, they allow:
    • slight depolarization 
    • receptors
    • slower influx of Na+ & Ca++
  61. Neurotransmitters are cleared from the _____ after release in order to stop their action in 3 ways. State them
    Cleft

    • diffusion
    • reuptake by adjacent cells
    • enzymes present in the cleft may destroy them
  62. Give an example of how neurotransmitters are stopped
    Acetylcholinesterase acting on acetylcholine
  63. The postsynaptic cell must sum the ______ & ____ input. ______ occurs at the axon hillock.
    • excitatory & inhibitory input
    • summation
  64. ______ ______ adds up messages at different synaptic sites. ______ _____ adds up potentials generated at the same site, over time.
    • Spatial summation 
    • Temporal summation
  65. Drugs treat the nervous system by ______ ______ ______.
    modulating synaptic interactions
  66. Agonists _____ or ______ the effect of a neurotransmitter. Antagonists _____ the actions of a _______.
    • mimic or potentiate 
    • block 
    • neurotransmitter

Card Set Information

Author:
chikeokjr
ID:
324694
Filename:
Neurons and nervous systems
Updated:
2016-10-30 22:47:33
Tags:
biologoy
Folders:
Midterm II pt 1
Description:
week 4
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