Psych 201 Unit 3

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  1. Initiative versus guilt
    The psychological conflict of the preschool years. As the word initiative suggests, young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers, and discover what they can do with the help of adults. They also make strides in conscience development
  2. How did Erikson regard play?
    As a means through which young children learn about themselves and their social world
  3. Early childhood is a time when children develop what?
    A confident self-image, more effective control over their emotions, new social skills, the foundations of morality, and a clear sense of themselves as boy or girl
  4. What does the development of language enable?
    Young children to talk about their own subjective experience of being
  5. Self-concept
    The set of attributes, abilities, attitudes, and values that an individual believe defines who he or she is
  6. What do preschoolers' self-concepts consist largely of?
    Observable characteristics, such as their name, physical appearance, possessions, and everyday behaviors
  7. Self-esteem
    The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments
  8. How can adults avoid promoting these self-defeating reactions?
    By adjusting their expectations to children's capacities, scaffolding children's attempts at difficult tasks, and pointing out effort and improvement children's behavior
  9. What helps support emotional development in early childhood?
    Gains in representation, language, and self-concept
  10. Self-conscious emotions
    Feelings that involve injury to or enhancement of their sense of self
  11. Prosocial, or altruistic behavior
    Actions that benefit another person without any expected reward for the self
  12. Sympathy
    Feelings of concern or sorrow for another's plight
  13. Who was the first to study peer sociability among 2 to 5 year olds?
    Mildred Parten
  14. Nonsocial activity
    Unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play
  15. Parallel play
    A child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior
  16. Associative play
    Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one another's behavior
  17. Cooperative play
    A more advanced type of interaction, children orient toward a common goal, such as acting out a make-believe theme
  18. Induction
    An adult helps the child notice feelings by pointing out the effects of the child's misbehavior on others
  19. Corporal punishment
    The use of physical force to inflict pain but not injury
  20. What predicts child and adolescent emotional and behavioral problems?
    Parental harshness and corporal punishment
  21. Time out
    Involves removing children from the immediate setting--for example, by sending them to their rooms--until they are ready to act appropriately
  22. Epiphyses
    Growth centers in which cartilage hardens into bone
  23. Skeletal age
    Progress toward physical maturity
  24. Synaptic pruning
    Neurons that are seldom stimulated lose their connective fibers and the number of synapses gradually declines
  25. Lateralization
    Specialize in cognitive functions
  26. Dominant cerebral hemisphere
    Handedness reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain--the individual's dominant cerebral hemisphere--to carry out skilled motor action
  27. Cerebellum
    At the rear and base of the brain, a structure that aids in balance and control of body movements
  28. Reticular formation
    A structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness
  29. Hippocampus
    An inner-brain structure, which plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way
  30. Corpus callosum
    A large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
  31. Pituitary gland
    Located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth
  32. Growth hormone (GH)
    Necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals, a pituitary hormone
  33. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    A second pituitary hormone, prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine, which is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size
  34. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
    Sick children are given a solution of glucose, salt, and water that quickly replaces fluids the body loses
  35. Dynamic systems
    Children continue to integrate previously acquired skills into more complex
  36. Preoperational stage
    Spans the years 2 to 7, the most obvious change is an extraordinary increase in representational, or symbolic, activity
  37. Sociodramatic play
    The make-believe with others that is under way by the end of the second year and increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood
  38. Duel representation
    Viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol
  39. Egocentrism
    Failure to distinguish others' symbolic viewpoints from one's own
  40. Operations
    Mental actions that obey logical rules
  41. Animistic thinking
    The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities
  42. Conservation
    Refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
  43. Centration
    They focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
  44. Hierarchical classification
    The organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and difference
  45. Irreversibility
    An inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point
  46. Basic-level categories
    Ones that are at an intermediate level of generality
  47. Inner speech
    The internal verbal dialogues we carry on while thinking and acting in everyday situations
  48. Private speech
    As a result, children's self-directed speech is now called private speech instead of egocentric speech
  49. Scaffolding
    Adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
  50. Who suggests the term guided participation?
    Barbara Rogoff
  51. Guided participation
    A broader concept than scaffolding. It refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise feautres of communication
  52. Recognition memory
    Ability to tell whether a stimulus is the same as or similar to one they have seen before
  53. Memory strategies
    Deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering
  54. Recall
    That the child generate a mental image of an absent stimulus
  55. Organize
    Grouping together items that are alike so they can easily retrieve them by thinking of their similar characteristics
  56. Episodic memory
    Memory for everyday experiences
  57. Scripts
    General descriptions of what occurs and when it occurs in a particular situation
  58. What do scripts help children (and adults) do?
    Organize and interpret everyday experiences
  59. Autobiographical memory
    Representations of personally meaningful, one-time events
  60. Elaborative style
    The adult follows the child's lead, asks varied questions, adds information to the child's statements, and volunteers their own recollections and evaluations of events
  61. Repetitive style
    Adults provide little information and keep repeating the same questions regardless of the child's interest
  62. Theory of mind
    Coherent set of ideas about mental activities
  63. Metacognition
    Thinking about thought
  64. Emergent literacy
    Children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences
  65. Autism
    Absorbed in the self
  66. Phonological awareness
    The ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language
  67. Interactive reading
    Adults discuss storybook content with preschoolers
  68. Ordinality
    Order relationships between quantities
  69. Cardinality
    The last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
  70. At what age are test scores good predictors of later IQ and academic achievement, which are related to vocational success in industrialized societies
    By age 6 to 7
  71. Preschool
    A program with planned educational experiences aimed at enhancing the development of 2 to 5 year olds
  72. Child care
    Refers to a variety of arrangements for supervising children
  73. Child-centered programs
    Teachers provide a variety of activities from which children select, and much learning takes places through play
  74. Academic programs
    Teachers structure children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill
  75. Project head start
    Most extensive of these federal programs, began in 1965. A typical Head Start center provides children with a year or two of preschool, along with nutritional and health services. Parent involvement is central to the Head Start philosophy
  76. Fast-mapping
    Connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter
  77. Mutual exclusivity bias
    The assumption that words refer to entirely separate (non-overlapping) categories
  78. Overregularization
    Overextend the rules to words that are exceptions
  79. Special language-making capacity
    A set of procedures for analyzing the language they hear
  80. Pragmatics
    Children must learn to engage in effective and appropriate communication. This practical, social side of language is called pragmatics
  81. Recasts
    Restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form
  82. Expansions
    Elaborating on children's speech, increasing its complexity
  83. Moral imperatives
    Which protect people's rights and welfare, from two other type of rules and expectations: social conventions and matters of personal choice
  84. Social conventions
    Customs determine solely by consensus, such as table manners and politeness rituals
  85. Matters of personal choice
    Such as friends hairstyle, and leisure activities, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual
  86. Proactive (or instrumental) aggression
    Children act to fulfill a need or desire--obtain an object, privilege, space, or social reward, such as adult or peer attention--and unemotionally attack a person to achieve their goal
  87. Reactive (or hostile) aggression
    An angry, defensive response to provocation or a blocked goal and is meant to hurt another person
  88. Physical aggression
    Harms others through physical injury
  89. Verbal aggression
    Harms others through threats of physical aggression, name-calling, or hostile teasing
  90. Relational aggression
    Damages another's peer relationships through social exclusion, malicious gossip, or friendship manipulation
  91. What percentage of TV time shows violent scenes?
    57%
  92. Gender typing
    Refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with one sex or the other in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes
  93. In-group favoritism
    More positive evaluations of members of one's own gender
  94. Gender constancy
    A full understanding of the biologically based permanence of their gender, including the realization that sex remains the same even if clothing, hairstyle, and play activities change
  95. Gender identity
    An image of oneself as relatively masculine or feminine in characteristics
  96. Androgyny
    Scoring high on both masculine and feminine personality characteristics
  97. Gender schema theory
    An information-processing approach that combines social learning and cognitive-developmental features. It explains how environmental pressures and children's cognitions work together to shape gender-role development
  98. Child-rearing styles
    A combination of parenting behaviors that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate
  99. Authoritative child-rearing style
    Is low in acceptance and involvement, high in coercive control, and low in autonomy granting
  100. Authoritarian child-rearing style
    The most successful approach that involves high acceptance and involvement, adaptive control techniques, and appropriate autonomy granting
  101. Permissive child-rearing stytle
    Is warm and accepting but uninvolved. Permissive parents are either overindulgent or inattentive and thus, engage in little control. Instead of gradually granting autonomy, they allow children to make many of their own decisions at an age when they are not yet capable of doing so
  102. Psychological control
    Behaviors that intrude on and manipulate children's verbal expression, individuality, and attachments to parents
  103. Uninvolved child-rearing style
    Combines low acceptance and involvement with little control and general indifference to issues of autonomy
  104. Obesity
    A greater-than-20 percent increase over healthy weight, based on body mass index (BMI), which is a ratio of weight to height associated with body fat
  105. What BMI is considered overweight and obese?
    A BMI above the 85th percentile for a child's age and sex is considered overweight, a BMI above the 95th percentile obese
  106. Myopia
    Nearsightedness
  107. What gross motor capacities development during middle childhood?
    Flexibility, balance, agility, and force
  108. Rough-and-tumble play
    Friendly chasing and play-fighting
  109. Dominance hierarchy
    A stable ordering of group members that predicts who will win when conflict arises
  110. Concrete operational stage
    Extends from about 7 to 11 years. Compared with early childhood, thought is far more logical, flexible, and organized
  111. Reversibility
    The capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
  112. Operations
    Mental actions that obey logical rules
  113. Decentration
    Focusing on several aspects of a problem and relating them, rather than centering on just one
  114. Seriation
    The ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
  115. Transitive inference
    The concrete operational child can also seriate mentally
  116. Cognitive maps
    Mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces, such as their neighborhood or school
  117. Scale
    The proportional relation between a space and its representation on a map
  118. Continuum of acquisition
    Gradual mastery
  119. What do some neo-Piagetian theorists argue?
    That the development of operational thinking can best be understood in terms of gains in information-processing speed rather than a sudden sift to a new stage
  120. Robbie Case
    Proposed that, with practice, cognitive schemes demand less attention and become more automatic
  121. Central conceptual structures
    Networks of concepts and relations that permit them to think more effectively about a wide range of situations
  122. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Involves inattention, impulsivity, and excessive motor activity resulting in academic and social problems
  123. Memory strategies
    Deliberate mental activities we use to store and retain information
  124. Rehearsal
    Repeating the information to herself
  125. Organization
    Grouping related items together
  126. Taxonomically
    Based on common properties
  127. Elaboration
    Creating a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that do not belong to the same category
  128. Theory of mind
    Set of ideas about mental activities
  129. Cognitive self-regulation
    The process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts
  130. Whole-language approach
    Argued that from the beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form--stories, poems, letters posters, and lists--so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language
  131. Phonics approach
    Believing that children should first be coached on phonics--the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds. Only after mastering these skills should they get complex reading material
  132. Triarchic theory of successful intelligence
    Identifies three broad, interacting intelligences: 1. analytical intelligence, or information processing skills; 2. creative intelligence, the capacity to solve novel problems; and 3. practical intelligence, application of intellectual skills in everyday situations. Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three to succeed in life according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community
  133. Theory of multiple intelligences
    Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities. Dismissing the idea of general intelligence, Gardner proposes at least eight independent intelligences
  134. What are Gardener's eight intelligences?
    • -Linguistic
    • -Logico-mathematical
    • -Musical
    • -Spatial
    • -Bodily-kinesthetic¬†
    • -Naturalist
    • -Interpersonal
    • -Intrapersonal
  135. Emotional intelligence
    Refers to a set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information. To measure it, researchers have devised items tapping emotional skills that enable people to manage their own emotions and interact competently with peers
  136. Stereotype threat
    The fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype--can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance
  137. Dynamic assessment
    An innovation consistent with Vygotsky's zone of proximal development, an adult introduces purposeful teaching into the testing situation to find out what the child can attain with social support
  138. Traditional classroom
    The teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision making. Students are relatively passive--listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher-assigned tasks. Their progress is evaluated by how well they keep pace with a uniform set of standards for their grade
  139. Constructivist classroom
    Encourages students to construct their own knowledge. Although constructivist approaches vary, many are grounded in Piaget's theory, which views children as active agents who reflect on and coordinate their own thoughts rather than absorbing those of others. A glance inside a constructivist classroom reveals richly equipped learning centers, small groups and individuals solving self-chosen problems, and a teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs. Students are evaluated by considering their progress in relation to their own prior development
  140. Social-constructivist classroom
    Children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings. As children acquire knowledge and strategies through working together, they become competent, contributing members of their classroom community and advance in cognitive and social development
  141. Cooperative learning
    Small groups of classmates work toward common goals--by resolving differences of opinion, sharing responsibilities, and providing one another with sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings
  142. Educational self-fulling prophecies
    Children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them
  143. Inclusive classrooms
    Students with learning difficulties learn alongside typical students in the regular educational setting for all or part of the school day--a practice designed to prepare them for participation in society and to combat prejudices against individuals with disabilities
  144. Learning disabilities
    Great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. As a result, their achievement is considerably behind what would be expected on the basis of their IQ
  145. Gifted
    Displaying exceptional intellectual strengths
  146. Creativity
    The ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate--something others have not thought of that is useful in some way
  147. Divergent thinking
    The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem
  148. Convergent thinking
    Involves arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests
  149. Talent
    Outstanding performance in a specific field
  150. Industry versus inferiority
    The psychological conflict of middle childhood, which is resolved positively when children develop a sense of competence at useful skills and tasks
  151. Social comparisons
    Judgments of their appearance, abilities, and behavior in relation to those of others
  152. Mastery-oriented attributions
    Crediting their successes to ability--a characteristic they can improve through trying hard and can count on when facing new challenges. And they attribute failure to factors that can be changed or controlled, such as insufficient effort or a very difficult task
  153. Learned helplessness
    Attribute their failures, not their successes, to ability. When they succeed, they conclude that external factors, such as luck, are responsible. Unlike their mastery-oriented counterparts, they believe that ability is fixed and cannot be improved by trying hard
  154. Problem-centered coping
    They appraise the situation as changeable, identify the difficulty, and decide what to do about it. If problem solving does not work, they engage in emotion-centered coping
  155. Emotion-centered coping
    Is internal, private, and aimed at controlling distress when little can be done about an outcome
  156. Emotional self-efficacy
    A feeling of being in control of their emotional experience
  157. Peer groups
    Collectives that generate unique values and standards for behavior and a social structure of leaders and followers
  158. Peer acceptance
    Refers to likability--the extent to which a child is viewed by a group of age-mates, such as classmates, as a worthy social partner
  159. Popular-prosocial children
    • -Combine academic and social competence
    • -The majority of popular children
  160. Popular-antisocial children
    Include "tough" boys--athletically skilled but poor students who cause trouble and defy adult authority--and relationally aggressive boys and girls who enhance their own status by ignoring, excluding, and spreading rumors about other children
  161. Popular children
    Who get many positive votes (are well-liked)
  162. Rejected children
    Who get many negative votes (are disliked)
  163. Controversial children
    Who get a large number of positive and negative votes (are both liked and disliked)
  164. Neglected children
    Who are seldom mentioned, either positively or negatively
  165. Rejected-aggressive children
    Show high rates of conflict, physical and relational aggression, and hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive behavior
  166. Rejected-withdrawn children
    Are passive and socially awkward
  167. Peer victimization
    Certain children become targets of verbal and physical attacks or other forms of abuse
  168. Coregulation
    A form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment-by-moment decision making
  169. Blended or reconstituted family
    About 60% of divorced parents remarry within a few years. Others cohabit, or share a sexual relationship and a residence with a partner outside of marriage. Parent, stepparent, and children form a new family structure
  170. Self-care children
    Who regularly look after themselves for some period of time after school
  171. Phobia
    About 5% of school-age children develop an intense, unmanageable fear

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Author:
mormons14
ID:
324699
Filename:
Psych 201 Unit 3
Updated:
2016-10-31 21:28:13
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Developmental Psych
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Physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development in early and middle childhood
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