Mammalian Nervous System part 1

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  1. motor innervation of all skeletal muscles
    somatic (voluntary motor)
  2. motor innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    ANS (involuntary motor)
  3. the output of the CNS that controls involuntary functions
    ANS
  4. consists of all nerves and ganglia outside the CNS; not encased in bone
    PNS
  5. main function of the PNS
    connect limbs and organs to the CNS
  6. ANS has 2 divisions (sympathetic & parasympathetic) - one will __ a function and the other will __ it.
    increase; decrease
  7. The parasympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons are in the __ & __ region of the spinal cord.
    brain stem; sacral

    (page 7 on slide)
  8. The sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons are in the __ & __ region of the spinal cord.
    thoracic; lumbar

    (page 7 on slide)
  9. The __ division has ganglia (cell bodies) near target organs.
    parasympathetic

    (page 7 on slide)
  10. contains most of the ganglia (cell bodies) in the sympathetic division
    sympathetic trunk ganglia

    (page 7 on slide)
  11. Pre-ganglionic neurons of both the parasympathetic & sympathetic division are __
    cholinergic

    (page 7 on slide)
  12. Post-ganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic division are mostly __
    cholinergic

    (page 7 on slide)
  13. Post-ganglionic neurons of the sympathetic division are __
    noradrenergic

    (page 7 on slide)
  14. Autonomic efferent pathways begin with __ neurons that use __ (neurotransmitter) & have cell bodies in the __ or __
    cholinergic; ACh; brain stem; spinal cord

    (page 7 & 8 on slide)
  15. Pre-ganglionic neurons synapse on a second neuron outside the CNS, in a collection of neurons called a __
    ganglion

    (Sympathetic trunk ganglia in sympathetic division)
  16. __ neurons: its axon leaves the ganglion and synapses in the target organs
    Post-ganglionic

    (page 10 on slide)
  17. Target cells respond in opposite ways to __ & __ (neurotransmitters)
    acetylcholine; norepinephrine
  18. __ neurons send axons to the adrenal.
    Pre-ganglionic sympathetic

    (Hormone-secreting cells in the adrenal are actually modified neurons - secrete neurotransmitters that act as hormones into the circulation.)

    (page 17 on slide)
  19. The neurotransmitter targeting skeletal muscles (somatic motor) is __ and has a __ effect.
    ACh; stimulatory

    (page 18 on slide)
  20. In the sympathetic division, __ (neurotransmitter) binds to __ receptors on the effector organ.
    • norepinephrine (NE);
    • nor-adrenergic
  21. In the parasympathetic division, __ (neurotransmitter) binds to __ receptors on the effector organ.
    ACh; muscarinic
  22. If you apply __ (neurotransmitter) to skeletal muscles, they relax.
    norepinephrine

    (page 19 on slide)
  23. Both sympathetic & parasympathetic post-ganglionic dendrites have __ receptors
    nicotinic (ionotropic)
  24. cell bodies in CNS: __
    cell bodies in PNS: __
    bundle of axons in CNS: __
    bundle axons in PNS: __
    • nuclei;
    • ganglia;
    • tract;
    • nerve
  25. __ binds to the transmembrane receptor that activates the Gs pathway. When __ binds, it inhibits the pathway.
    Norepinephrine (NE); Beta (1 & 2) blockers

    (Gs activates adenylyl cyclase to convert ATP to cAMP, leads to PKA and opening of Ca2+ channels, causing muscle contraction)

    (page 13 on slide)
  26. __ binds to the transmembrane receptor that activates the Gi pathway. When __ binds, it inhibits the pathway.
    Acetylcholine (ACh); adenosine & muscarinic receptor

    (Gi inhibits adenylyl cyclase from converting ATP to cAMP, leads to less PKA and less opening of Ca2+ channels, causing less muscle contraction)

    (page 13 on slide)
  27. steps in sympathetic pathway
    • 1. Pre-ganglionic cholinergic neurons leave thoracic or lumbar region of spinal cord.
    • 2. Axons synapse in the sympathetic trunk ganglia & releases ACh.
    • 3. ACh binds to nicotinic receptors on post-ganglionic dendrites.
    • 4. Action potential occurs & the neuron releases NE at the axon terminal to nor-adrenergic receptors (g-protein coupled) on target organ.
    • 5. Sympathetic response occurs. (heart speed up, etc.)

    (page 8 & 18 on slide)
  28. steps in pathway to the adrenal gland
    • 1. Pre-ganglionic neurons leave thoracic or lumbar region of spinal cord.
    • 2. Axons go to nicotinic receptors on chromaffin cells (post-ganglionic cells) of the adrenal medulla.
    • 3. Depolarization occurs and releases epinephrine & NE into the bloodstream.
    • 4. Sympathetic response occurs.
  29. steps in parasympathetic pathway
    • 1. Pre-ganglionic cholinergic neurons leave brain stem or sacral region of spinal cord.
    • 2. Axons synapse in a ganglion near the target organ & releases ACh.
    • 3. ACh binds to nicotinic receptors on post-ganglionic dendrites.
    • 4. Action potential occurs & the neuron releases ACh at the axon terminal to muscarinic receptors (g-protein coupled) on target organ.
    • 5. Parasympathetic response occurs. (activation of digestion, etc)

    (page 8 & 18 on slide)

Card Set Information

Author:
sophathida
ID:
324736
Filename:
Mammalian Nervous System part 1
Updated:
2016-10-31 02:10:00
Tags:
nervous mammals CNS PNS sympathetic parasympathetic ganglion
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Description:
Week 4, Ch. 40
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