Mammalian Nervous System part 2

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  1. 5-week embryo structure that becomes the cerebrum/cerebral cortex

    (page 21 and 22 on slide)
  2. 5-week embryo structure that becomes the hypothalamus and thalamus

    (page 21 and 22 on slide)
  3. 5-week embryo structure that becomes the midbrain

    (page 21 and 22 on slide)
  4. functions of the spinal cord
    • conducts info between brain & organs
    • integrates info coming from the PNS
    • responds by issuing motor commands
  5. contains dendrites & cell bodies of spinal neurons
    gray matter

    - interneurons & motor neurons
  6. contains axons that conduct info up and down the spinal cord
    white matter

    - tracts
  7. All __ neuron cell bodies are found outside of the CNS

    - dorsal root ganglia

    (page 25 on slide)
  8. __ are found in the dorsal horn. __ are found in the ventral horn.
    Sensory interneurons; motor neurons
  9. Reflex arc: Sensory neurons detect stretch of muscle & fires an __ to spinal cord. The interneuron releases __. Extensor motor neurons releases __ to contract the muscle. (extension). At the same time, the inhibitory interneuron, __ is released which causes the flexor muscle (antagonist) to not contract.
    • action potential;
    • glutamate;
    • ACh;
    • glycine

    (Glycine in this case inhibits an action potential so no ACh is released to the flexor muscle.)

    (page 26 on slide)
  10. brain structure that controls autonomic functions
    brain stem
  11. autonomic centers in the brain stem
    • respiration center
    • cardiac center
    • vasomotor center
  12. The midbrain is specialized for __
    • vision
    • hearing
    • sleep/wake
    • arousal
  13. structure that filters incoming signals, helping to discriminate between important & unimportant ones
    reticular formation

    - located in brain stem & integrated info radiates to cerebral cortex

    (page 31 on slide)
  14. functions of the cerebellum
    • motor control (fine motor, coordination, precision, & timing)
    • motor learning
  15. Spinocerebellar Ataxia results in __
    • poor coordination of hands, speech, eye movements
    • unsteady & clumsy motion of the body
  16. part of limbic system, transfers short-term memory to long-term memory
  17. routes info about experiences that have an emotional component through the limbic system, critical for fear and fear memory
  18. relay inputs from odor receptors to both the cerebral cortex & the limbic system
    olfactory bulbs
  19. gray matter centers that surround the thalamus on both sides of the brain. moderate voluntary movements directed by motor centers in the cerebrum
    basal nuclei/ganglia

    Damage can affect the planning & fine-tuning of body movements. (e.g. Parkinson's disease)
  20. 3 parts of basal nuclei/ganglia
    • caudate nucleus (arches over thalamus)
    • putamen
    • globus pallidus (medial to putamen)

    - a group of nuclei deep within the cerebral white matter

    (page 42 & 43 on slide)
  21. functions of basal nuclei/ganglia
    • complex neural calculators (cooperate with the cerebral cortex in controlling movement)
    • receive input from many cortical areas
  22. __ also influences basal ganglia
    Substantia nigra
  23. 3 paired structures of the diencephalon
    • thalamus
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  24. receives sensory info and relays it to the regions of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor responses to sensory info

    - Part of the thalamus near the brain stem cooperates with the reticular formation in alerting the cerebral cortex to full wakefulness, or in inducing drowsiness or sleep
  25. 3 thalamic nuclei
    • medial geniculate body: info goes to auditory cortex
    • lateral geniculate body: info goes to visual cortex
    • ventral postero-lateral nucleus: info goes to the somatosensory cortex
  26. main visceral control center of the body. "the master gland's master"
  27. The __ nucleus & the __ nucleus set & maintain body temp.
    posterior hypothalamic; anterior hypothalamic
  28. hypothalamic nuclei that send axons to the pituitary gland (endocrine function)
    • paraventricular nucleus
    • arcuate nucleus
  29. The __ is the dominant brain structure in mammals.

    - Humans have a greater brain capacity than other organisms.

    (page 55 on slide)
  30. a sheet of gray matter covering each hemisphere that is convoluted to fit into the skull
    cerebral cortex

    (page 56 on slide)
  31. made up of areas that integrate or associate sensory info or memories
    association cortex
  32. lobe of cerebral cortex that receives & processes auditory info
    temporal lobe

    (page 56 on slide)
  33. divides the frontal & parietal lobes
    central sulcus

    (page 56 on slide)
  34. lobe of cerebral cortex associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, problem solving, working memory, & personality
    frontal lobe
  35. cortex that controls muscles in specific body areas
    primary motor cortex

    • located in front of the central sulcus (in frontal lobe)
    • Stimulation in one hemisphere causes movement of specific body parts on the opposite side of the body.

    (page 62 on slide)
  36. lobe of cerebral cortex associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli, spatial abilities, & integration of sensory info
    parietal lobe

    - primary somatosensory cortex & association areas

    (page 63 & 65 on slide)
  37. cortex that registers info on touch, pain, temperature, & pressure
    primary somatosensory cortex

    - located behind the central sulcus (in parietal lobe)
  38. lobe of cerebral cortex that receives & processes visual info. Association areas involve making sense of the visual world & translating visual experience into language
    occipital lobe
  39. Damage to this area results in slow or lost speech; still can read & understand language
    Broca's area (in frontal lobe)
  40. Damage to this area results in inability to speak sensibly; written or spoken language not understood. Still can produce speech
    Wernicke's area (in parietal & temporal lobe)
  41. Speech commands (either auditory or visual) are formulated in __ , travel to __, & then to the __ for production.
    • Wernicke's area
    • Broca's area
    • primary motor cortex

    (page 67 on slide)
Card Set:
Mammalian Nervous System part 2
2016-10-31 02:54:18
nervous mammals CNS brain spinalcord

Week 4, Ch. 40
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