Psych Intelligence Thinking and Language

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  1. language
    a system for communicating with others using signals that are combined according to rules of grammar and convey meaning
  2. grammar
    a set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produce meaningful messages
  3. phoneme
    the smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as a speech rather than as random noise
  4. phonological rules
    a set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds
  5. morphemes
    the smallest meaningful units of language
  6. morphological rules
    a set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form words
  7. syntactical words
    a set rules that indicates how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences
  8. deep structure
    the meaning of a sentence
  9. surface structure
    how a sentence is worded
  10. fast mapping
    the fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure
  11. telegraphic speech
    speech that is devoid of function morphemes and consists mostly of content words
  12. nativist theory
    language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity
  13. genetic dysphasia
    a syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence
  14. aphasia
    difficulty in producing or comprehending language
  15. prototype
    an example that embodies the most common and typical features of the concept
  16. exemplars
    compare a new subject to all other personal encounters similar to that object
  17. category-specific deficit
    a neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category
  18. rational choice theory
    the classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen
  19. frequency format hypothesis
    the proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur
  20. availability bias
    items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently
  21. conjunction fallacy
    the belief that the probability of 2 events occurring together is greater than the probability of either event occurring by itself
  22. representative heuristic
    tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself
  23. framing effects
    decisions are shaped by the language used to describe or frame a dillema
  24. sunk-cost fallacy
    people make decisions about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation
  25. prospect theory
    people choose to take on risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
  26. intelligence
    the ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experience
  27. ratio IQ
    dividing a person's mental age by the person's physical age and then multiplying the quotient by 100
  28. deviation IQ
    dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying by 100
  29. two factor theory of intelligence
    spearman's theory suggesting that every task requires a combination of a general ability and skills that are specific to the task (s and g)
  30. fluid intelligence
    the ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences
  31. crystallized intelligence
    the ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience
  32. emotional intelligence
    the ability to reason about emotions and to use emotions to enhance reasoning
  33. when does babies lose their ability to distinguish speech sounds
    4-6 months
  34. when do babies have their first words
    10 to 12 months
  35. when do babies have telographic speech
    24 months-primitive sentences
  36. when do kids learn grammatical rules, and errors
    4 to 5 yrs
  37. behaviorist explanations for leaning language
    children learn language through operant conditioning
  38. who proposed the nativist theory and what is it
    Noam Chomsky, language is innate, we are hardwired to learn language, there's a period for learning language
  39. interactionist theories
    combination of social interaction and innate ability
  40. artificial formation
    formal concepts that can clearly defined by a set of rules
  41. natural concepts
    casual or fuzzy concepts that do not have a precise set of properties.
  42. who proposed the idea of prototypes
  43. forms of problem solving
    trial and error, algorithms, heuristics, insight
  44. what is insight
    solution just appears to you
  45. functional fixedness
    failure to use familiar objects in novel ways
  46. mental set
    continuing to use that same old method even though another approach might be better
  47. ex. of mental set
    Luchin's water jug
  48. confirmation bias
    tendency to look only for evidence that will verify our beliefs
  49. belief perserverance
    we hold on to an earlier belief even if that belief was proven wrong, cling to our discredited beliefs
  50. base rate information
    data about the frequency or probability of a given event/item how rare or common it is
  51. anchoring effect
    the tendency to use one stimulus as an anchor or reference point in judging a second stimulus
  52. what did Twersk and Kannemen
    problem solving-heuristics
  53. Entity theorist
    intelligence is fixed
  54. incremental theorist
    intelligence is variable, changeable
  55. psychology lumpers
    • charles spearman-2 factor theory
    • raymond cattell-2 types of g (crystallized and fluid)
  56. psychology splitters
    • Louis thurstone-human intelligence consists of seven factors
    • Howard Gardner- multiple intelligence(8)
    • Sternberg- triarchic theory
  57. what is the triarchic theory
    3 kinds of intelligence: componential or analytic intelligence( academic performance), experimental or creative(transfer skills from one situation to another), contexual or practical intelligence(skills for a particular situation)
  58. who suggested the idea of intelligence quotient
    William Stern
  59. validity
    the extent to which a given test assess what it is supposed to measure
  60. reliable
    the dependability or consistency of a measurement instrument
  61. how much does genetics account for intelligence
  62. flynn effect
    significant gains in IQ over time; seen in industrialized countries
Card Set:
Psych Intelligence Thinking and Language
2016-10-22 20:00:26

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