Ch. 1 Introducing Hardware

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pjurmaine
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32495
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Ch. 1 Introducing Hardware
Updated:
2010-09-02 20:16:37
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Hardware
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Hardware
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  1. The computer's physical components is called ...
    hardware.
  2. The set of instructions that directs the hardware to accomplish a task is ...
    software.
  3. To perform computing tasks, software uses hardware for 4 basic functions. These functions are ...
    input, processing, storage, and output.
  4. Besides software, what else does hardware need in order to communicate data and instructions among themselves?
    an electrical system to provide power.
  5. Every communication between hardware and software, or between software and other software, is reduced to ...
    yes or no/on or off.
  6. The technology of storing and reading only two states is ...
    binary.
  7. the number system that only uses two digits, 0 and 1, is ...
    binary number system.
  8. A 1 or 0 in the binary number system is called a ...
    bit.
  9. In the binery number system, how is grouping handled?
    Grouping is done is groups of 8 bits.
  10. A group of 8 bits is called a ...
    byte.
  11. In a computer, the binary number system is used for ...
    all counting and calculations.
  12. When text is stored in a computer, what happens first?
    Every letter/character is converted to a code using only zeros and ones.
  13. The most common coding method for text is ...
    ASCII.
  14. ASCII stands for ...
    American Standard Code for Information Interchange.
  15. Most input and output devices are located ...
    outside the computer case.
  16. Most processing and storage components are located ...
    inside the computer case.
  17. The most important component in the case is the ...
    CPU/Central Processing Unit
  18. CPU stands for ...
    Central Processing Unit.
  19. The CPU is also called ...
    the processor or microprocessor.
  20. Each hardware device requires these 3 things:
    • 1. A method for the CPU to communicate with the device,
    • 2. Software toinstruct and control the device, and
    • 3. Electricity to power the device.
  21. Devices outside the computer deal with components inside the computer through 2 ways ...
    a wireless connection or cables.
  22. How are cables connected to the computer?
    at a connection called a port.
  23. A wireless device communicates with the system using ...
    a radio wave or infrared port.
  24. The most popular input devices are ...
    keyboard and mouse.
  25. The most popular output devices are ...
    a monitor and printer.
  26. Standard keyboards today hold how many keys?
    104
  27. A monitor is typically rated according to 2 things ...
    the diagonal size of its screen (in inches) and the monitor's resolution.
  28. A monitor's resolution is ...
    a function of the number of dots on the screen used for display.
  29. A printer's output on paper is often called ...
    a hard copy.
  30. USB stands for ...
    Universal Serial Bus
  31. IC stands for ...
    Integrated Circuit
  32. A board that holds microchips, or integrated circuits (ICs), and the circuitry that connects these chips is ...
    a circuit board.
  33. Microchips are most often manufactured using what kind of technology?
    CMOS/ Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor Technology
  34. There are 2 types of cables inside the case ...
    data cables and power cables.
  35. How are data cables shaped?
    flat and wide
  36. How are power cords shaped?
    round and small
  37. The best way to identify a cable is to ...
    trace its source and destination.
  38. The largest and most important circuit board in the computer is ...
    the motherboard.
  39. The motherboard is also called ...
    the main board or system board.
  40. A device that is not installed directly on the motherboard is called ...
    a peripheral device.
  41. A parallel port transmits data in ...
    parallel.
  42. A parallel port is most often used by ...
    a printer.
  43. An S/PDIF port is ...
    a sound port for an external home theater audio system.
  44. S/PDIF stands for ...
    Sony-Philips Digital Interface
  45. A FireWire port is used for ...
    high-speed multimedia devices.
  46. A FireWire port is also called ...
    a 1394 port.
  47. A USB port is used for ...
    Many different input/output devices.
  48. A group of microchips on the motherboard that controls the flow of data and instructions to and from the processor is ...
    the chipset.
  49. This type of memory is used to hold data and instructions as they are processed.
    the chipset.
  50. RAM stands for ...
    Random Access Memory.
  51. This type of memory speeds up memory access.
    Cache memory
  52. What connects expansion cards to the motherboard?
    Expansion slots
  53. What keeps the computer's communication in sync?
    The system clock.
  54. A memory chip that is used to permanently store instructions that control basic hardware functions is ...
    Flash ROM
  55. The chip inside the computer that performs most of the actual data processing is ...
    the processor/CPU.
  56. PC stands for ...
    Personal Computer.
  57. There are 2 kinds of storage:
    temporary and permanent.
  58. Temporary storage is also known as ...
    primary storage.
  59. Which type of storage is the fastest to access?
    Primary storage.
  60. Permanent storage is also known as ...
    secondary storage.
  61. Primary storage is provided by ...
    RAM (Random Access memory).
  62. RAM boards are also called ...
    memory modules.
  63. There are 3 general types of modules:
    • 1. DIMM
    • 2. RIMM and
    • 3. SIMM.
  64. DIMM stands for ...
    Dual Inline Memory Module.
  65. SIMM stands for ...
    Single Inline Memory Module.
  66. The most common type of memory module is ...
    DIMM.
  67. When the computer is turned off, information stored in RAM is ...
    lost.
  68. The kind of memory that is temporary in nature is called ...
    volatile.
  69. The kind of memory that holds data permanently is called ...
    nonvolatile.
  70. Nonvolatile memory is called ...
    ROM.
  71. ROM stands for ...
    Read-Only Memory.
  72. The CPU can process data and instructions directly from CDs, hard drives and floppy disks. True or False.
    False.
  73. A sealed case that has platters or disks that rotate at a high speed is a ...
    hard drive.
  74. Most hard drives today use an internal technology called ...
    IDE.
  75. IDE stands for ...
    Integrated Drive Electronics.
  76. The 2 major ATA standards for a hard drive interface are ...
    Serial ATA and Parallel ATA.
  77. ATA stands for ...
    AT Attachment.
  78. Parallel ATA is also known as ...
    EIDE.
  79. EIDE stands for ...
    Enhanced IDE.
  80. The newer ATA standard for a hard drive interface is the ...
    Serial ATA.
  81. With the Parallel ATA standard, how many IDE devices can the motherboard accomodate?
    4
  82. Which ATA standard allows for more than 4 IDE devices installed in a system?
    Serial ATA
  83. A hard drive receives it power from the ...
    power supply.
  84. CD-ROM stands for ...
    Compact Disc Read-Only Memory.
  85. Most software is distributed on ...
    CDs.
  86. Circuits or paths that enable data, instructions, and power to move from component to component on the board are ...
    traces.
  87. The system of pathways used for communication and the protocol and methods used for transmission are collectively called ...
    the bus.
  88. A set of rules and standards that any two entities use for communication is a ...
    protocol.
  89. The lines of the bus that are used for data is called ...
    the data bus.
  90. How is binary data put on a line of a bus?
    By placing voltage on that line.
  91. The voltage on a bus line is interpreted as ...
    binary digits.
  92. A bus that has 8 wires, or lines, to transmit data is called an ...
    8-bit bus.
  93. Most buses today have a ninth bit for ...
    error checking.
  94. What is the reason for adding a check bit for each byte?
    This allows the component reading the data to verify that it is the same data written to the bus.
  95. The width of a data bus is called the ...
    data path size.
  96. Does a motherboard have more than one bus?
    Yes
  97. The main bus on the motherboard that communicates with the CPU, memory and chipset is called the ...
    system bus.
  98. Other names for the system bus are ...
    front side bus, memory bus, host bus, local bus and external bus.
  99. What is the size of the data portion of most system buses on today's motherboards?
    64-bits wide
  100. What does the system clock do?
    Times the activities of the chips on the motherboard.
  101. Another term for the system clock is ...
    system timer.

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