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  1. types of hypothesis
    • 1. associative-when on variable changes,the other variable changes
    • 2. casual-when one variable determines the presence or change in another variable
    • 3.simple- a hypothesis describing the relationship between two variables
    • 4.complex- describes the relationship among three or more variables
    • 5.directional-describes the direction of a relationship between two or more variables
    • 6.non-directional- statement of the relationship between two variables that does not predict the direction of the relationship
    • 7.null- a hypothesis stating that there is no relationship between the variables
    • 8.research- indicate that a relationship between two or more variables exists
  2. hypothesis
    formal statements regarding the expected or predicted relationship between two or more variables in a specific population

    derived from either the problem statement or the research question

    include independent and dependent variables, predict relationship between variables in a specific population
  3. variable
    a phenomenon that can be directly measured

    anything that varies and that is measurable

    one variable determines the presence of the other

    occur together when one changes the other changes
  4. types of variables
    independent-influences the dependent variable or outcome it is the intervention or treatment hat is manipulated by the researcher

    dependent- influenced by the independent variable is the variable or outcome that is influenced by the independent variable

    confounding-variables factors that interfere with the relationship between the independent and dependent variable
  5. quantitative
    • uses instruments to measure how much
    • use numbers
    • describe variables
    • determine relationships among variables
    • determine differences between variables 
    • determine effect of one or more variables or outcome variable
    • is there a relationship between?
    • is there a difference in?
    • what is the effect of?
    • use randon sampling

    • researcher
    • defines concepts to be measured
    • identifies outcome looking for dependent variable
    • formulate hypothesis
    • use deductive reasoning from general to specific
  6. qualitative
    • use inductive reasoning
    • uses words to describe what a particular concept means to those experiencing it
    • asks questions (interviews) and observe to expand understanding (patient observation)
    • what is the essence of ?
    • what is the lived experience?
    • what is the process of 

    • researcher
    • seeks broader definition of phenomenon
    • does not hypothesis about the outcome
    • outcome emerges as study progresses
    • participants are the experts/researcher is the learner
  7. snowballing sampling-
    recruitment of participants based on word of mouth or referrals from other participants
  8. data saturation
    data collection stops  when no new information is being obtained and repetition of information is consistently heard
  9. purposive-
    sampling method to recruit specific persons who could provide inside information is selected intentionally by volunteers who want to share their story
  10. bracketing
    setting aside personal interpretations to avoid bias
  11. types of qualitative research
    • phenomenology
    • grounded theory
    • ethnography
    • histrical
  12. phenomenology
    • lived exsperience
    • describing the lived experience to achieve understanding of an experience from participants perspective
  13. grounded theory
    • process
    • examines the process of a phenomenon and culminates in the generation of a theory

    example: what is the process of recovery following breast cancet
  14. ethnography
    • culture 
    • qualitative research that describes a culture
  15. historical
    • the past
    • examining events or people to explain and understand the past to guide the present and future
  16. types of quantitative research
    nonexperimental-lacks manipulation of the independent variable and random assignment

    correlational-nonexsperimental designs used to study relationships beween 2 or more variable

    quasiexperimental-involving the manipulation of the independent variable but lacking either random assignment to groups or a control group

    experimental- involving random assignment to groups and manipulation of the independent variable
  17. trustworthiness
    quality authenticity and truthfulness of findings from qualitative research
  18. credibility
    • truth of believability of findings of qualitative studies
    • ex: peer debriefing
    •       member checks
    •       audit trials
    •      thick descriptions
  19. transferability
    whether findings from one qualitative study can be transferred to a similar context to establish trustworthiness
  20. dependability
    consistency of the findings over time showing qualitative studies to be trustworthy
  21. confirmabillity
    objectiveness and maintenance of adult trials to document the research process to show study trustworthiness
  22. validity
    refers to the degree an instrument measures what it is suppose to measure a valid instrument reflects the characteristics or concept that is being measured
  23. content validity
    established when researchers know that the instrument measures the concept intended to measure, this requires the researchers clearly define the concept being studied to ensure that the selected instrument fits
  24. test for content validity
    face validity-involve letting others examine the instruments asking colleagues or subjects to indicate whether the instrument appears to measure the concept

    content validity-exsperts on the topics are asked to judge each item on an instrument by assigning a rating to determine its fits with the concepts being measured
Card Set:
2016-10-31 03:21:43
research 2
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