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  1. what is the one of the most helpful criteria used to know wheather a musical event participates in a motion toward or away from a climactic event?
    whether an event is dissonant (unstable,initiates motion toward consonance) or consonant (dissipates the dissonance's instability)
  2. Describe something about this picture Image Upload
    Of course, the interval of the octave is completely stable. The dissonant majorseventh ("J? over C) meanwhile reqpires resolution. pepending on the direction ofthe line, 7 will either ascend to 8 or descend to 6 where, in the latter case, itforms a consonant sixth with the bass. Yet is the sixth really an arrival? Yes, but86 THE COMPLETE MUSICIANnot a particularly strong one; as an imperfect consonance, it is less stable than theperfect fifth that results when 6 in turn passes to 5. We can see that the dependencebetween various intervals establishes a hierarchical relationship betweenconsonance and dissonance. The strident sound of the dissonant seventh is onlyrelatively resolved by the sixth, itself an imperfect consonance. It is the fifth, aperfect consonance, which provides stability. As we have already seen, the passingtone 4, forming a dissonant fourth with the bass, also has a strong need to resolve,and it does so to 3, which forms a major third with the bass. However, becausethis imperfect consonance is not completely stable, 3 descends via thedissonant passing tone 2 to i, which forms an octave with the bass.Thus the notes that are consonant with the bass note C in Example 4.3 are C,E, G, and A. If we ranked these consonances, C and G would be the most stable,followed by E. A is the least stable consonance because it has a tendency to fallto G. Therefore, the major tonic triad is a stable entity that is surrounded byunstable forces, as we heard in Bach's Violin Partita in E major in Chapter 1.
  3. what is nonchord tones ?
    If we view this scale as a crude melody,we see that the passing tones B A F and D (7642) appear between and therefore connect the stable pitches CEG, whose combination results in a traid. Since these passing tones are not members of the underlying C-major triad, which is implied by the sustained C in the bass, we call them nonchord tones  (和弦外音)
  4. what is neighbor tone
    • a type of nonchord tone. also called auxiliary tone or simply neighbor 
    • Upper neighbors : neighbors that lie above a stable pitch
    • Lower pitch:  lie below 

    Neighbor tone is more static than passing tone.

    Neighbor tones can be dissonant or consonant.
  5. We refer to leaps that are members of the underlying harmony  as _________
    Consonant leaps or chordal leaps
  6. what is arpeggiation
    if all tones from the some harmony appear in succession, they form an arpeggiation (ARP)

    Triadic skips and leaps are possible as long as they are members of the underlying harmony.
  7. embellishments
    • consonant embellishments : the chordal leap and arpeggiation 
    • dissonant embellishments : the dissonant passing tone and neighbor tone

    we refer melodic embellishments generically as embellishing tones.

  8. the swapping of parts between voices is called ?
    invertible counterpoint or double counterpoint

    the octave switching is called invertible counterpoint at the octave 

    it is also possible to invert two-voice counterpoint at other intervals, most commonly the twelfth.
  9. why invertible counterpoint?
    First, economically, it allows composers to reap twice as muchmusical value from a single idea.

    Second, it allows the music to remainclearly unified because the listener is repeatedly exposed to material indifferent ways. The registral exchange of figures in invertible counterpointcreates sections of music that, although strongly related, have their owndistinctive sound. The result is a perfect mix that satisfies the listener's desire for variety and contrast.
  10. how to deal with intervallic quality when writing invertible counterpoint ?
    • for thirds and sixths, when inverted their quality are still consonant. 
    • However, the fifths could be potential danger, its inverted turn out to be fourth, which is dissonant in counterpoint. 
    • In this case, we'd better write fifths at the weak beat.

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2016-11-01 03:49:42
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