Chp 11 Orofacial structures

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  1. The orofacial glands include the ____ and _____
    salivary glands and the thyroid gland
  2. A gland is a
    structure that produces a chemical secretion necessary for normal body functioning
  3. Endocrine gland secretions go
    directly into the blood
  4. _______ associated with both types of glands help regulate the flow of the secretions
    Motor nerves
  5. What are some of the positive functions of saliva
    • cleanses the oral mucosa and protects it from dryness
    • helps in digestion of food by enzymatic activity
    • protecting the oral mucosa against acids from food and bacterial plaque
    • involved in antibacterial activity
    • helps to maintain tooth integrity since it is involved in remineralization of the tooth surface
  6. What are some of the negative functions of saliva
    • contributes to the formation of the pellicle on the tooth and mucosal surfaces
    • supplies the minerals for supragingival calculus formation
  7. What are the two types of saliva
    serous and mucous
  8. Both types of saliva contain
    minerals, electrolytes, enzymes, immunoglobulins (antibodies) and metabolic wastes
  9. Describe serous saliva
    watery, mainly protein fluid containing enzymes for digestion
  10. Describe mucous saliva
    thick, mainly carbohydrate fluid which serves as a good lubricant
  11. The secretion by the salivary glands is controlled by
    the autonomic nervous system
  12. Salivary glands are classified as ______ or _____ and are _____ glands
    • major or minor
    • exocrine
  13. The major salivary glands are
    the parotid, the submandibular and the sublingual glands
  14. The parotid gland is the _________ and provides ____ of the total saliva
    • largest encapsulated salivary gland
    • 25%
  15. What does encapsulated mean
    it has a connective tissue capsule around it
  16. The parotid is located
    behind the ramus of the mandible, anterior and inferior to the ear
  17. The secretory cells in the parotid glands are
    predominantly serous
  18. The duct associated with the parotid gland is called
    the parotid duct or Stenson’s duct
  19. Stenson’s duct opens up on
    the buccal mucosa opposite the maxillary second molar at the parotid papilla
  20. The submandibular gland is the ________  major salivary gland, and provides ____% of the total saliva
    • second largest encapsulated
    • 65%
  21. The submandibular gland lies
    beneath the mandible in the submandibular fossa, posterior to the sublingual salivary gland
  22. The secretory cells in the submandibular glands are _________ so the saliva is ______
    • both serous and mucous
    • mixed, mucoserous saliva
  23. The duct associated with the submandibular gland is the _______ which opens into the oral cavity at the _______
    • submandibular duct or Wharton’s duct
    • sublingual caruncle
  24. The sublingual salivary gland is the _______ and only _______ major salivary gland
    • smallest
    • unencapsulated
  25. It provides about __% of the saliva
  26. The sublingual salivary gland is located
    in the sublingual fossa, anterior to the submandibular salivary glands in the floor of the mouth
  27. The secretory cells in the sublingual glands are ________, but the ________ so the saliva is _______
    • both serous and mucous
    • mucous cells predominate
    • mostly mucous
  28. The short ducts associated with the sublingual gland combine to form the
    sublingual duct or Bartholin’s duct
  29. Bartholin’s duct then opens into the oral cavity through the _______ and also _______
    • the sublingual caruncle
    • along the sublingual fold
  30. The minor salivary glands are _______than the major glands but are ________
    • much smaller
    • more numerous
  31. minor salivary glands are scattered in the tissue of the
    buccal, labial and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral portions of the hard palate and the floor of the mouth
  32. What are the minor salivary glands associated with the large circumvallate lingual papillae
    von Ebner’s salivary glands
  33. Both major and minor salivary glands are composed of
    both epithelium and connective tissue
  34. _______ cells line the duct and produce the ______
    • Epithelial
    • saliva
  35. what is the function of the connective tissue in a gland
    surrounds, protects and supports the gland
  36. The connective tissue of the gland is divided into the _____, which surrounds ______, that divides the gland into ______
    • capsule
    • the gland and the septum
    • smaller lobes
  37. The connective tissue septum divides the inner portion of the gland
    into the larger lobes and the smaller lobules
  38. Epithelial cells that produce the saliva are called
    secretory cells
  39. The two types of secretory cells are either
    serous or mucous
  40. The serous cells have
    a clear cytoplasm and produce serous saliva
  41. Secretory cells are found in a group or _____
  42. Each acinus consists of a single layer of ________ surrounding a _____where the ______
    • cuboidal epithelial cells
    • lumen
    • saliva is deposited
  43. The serous acini are composed of ______ and have a ______ lumen
    • serous cells producing serous saliva
    • narrow
  44. In contrast, the mucous acini are composed of ______ and have a _____ lumen
    • mucous cells producing mucous saliva
    • wider
  45. _______ acini have both a group of _______ surrounding the lumen and a _______ superficial to the group of mucous secretory cells
    • Mucoserous
    • mucous cells
    • serous demilune (half-moon) of serous cells
  46. _______ also overlay the acini and serve to help _______
    • Myoepithelial cells
    • force the saliva out of the gland and into the duct system
  47. The ductal system of salivary glands consists of ________ with the ______ and then with ______ as the ducts ______ from the inner to the outer portions of the gland
    • hollow tubes connected initially
    • acinus
    • other ducts
    • progressively grow larger
  48. The duct associated with an acinus is the ______ lined by _____ cells
    • intercalated duct
    • cuboidal epithelial
  49. The next duct after the intercalated duct that is slightly larger in diameter and lined by _______ is called the ________ duct
    • a single layer of columnar epithelial cells
    • striated duct
  50. In the final portion of the salivary gland ductal system is the _________ which is located in the _______
    • excretory duct or secretory duct
    • septum of the gland
  51. With aging, there is a generalized loss of salivary gland tissue up to __ to __ %
    30 to 60%
  52. Whether from aging, medication or disease, a decrease in saliva is known as
  53. Xerostomia can lead to
    • Trauma to oral mucosa
    • Increase in caries
    • Speech and mastication problems
    • Bad breath
  54. ______ is the largest endocrine gland
    The thyroid gland
  55. Because it is ductless, the thyroid gland produces and secretes its products
    thyroxine and other hormones directly into the blood
  56. Thyroxine is a hormone that
    stimulates the metabolic rate
  57. The thyroid gland consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an
  58. The thyroid gland is covered by a connective tissue capsule that extends into the gland by way of
  59. _____ is any enlargement of the thyroid gland
  60. The lymphatics are a part of the _____ system and help _____
    • immune
    • fight disease
  61. Tissue fluid drains from the surrounding region into the lymphatic vessels as _____ which is similar in composition to ______
    • lymph
    • plasma
  62. lymph nodes are positioned to _____ to prevent their entry into the _______
    • filter toxic products from the lymph
    • blood system
  63. The entire lymph node is surrounded by a
    connective tissue capsule
  64. Intraoral tonsillar tissue consists of ________ located in the ______
    • nonencapsulated masses of lymphoid tissue
    • lamina propria of the oral mucosa
  65. Tonsils, like lymph nodes contain
  66. The palatine tonsils are two rounded masses located between the _____
    anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars
  67. The lingual tonsil is located on the
    base of the dorsal surface of the tongue
  68. When a patient has an active infection, the region’s lymph nodes can respond resulting in
  69. midline nasal septum consists of both
    bone and cartilage
  70. The nasal cavity is lined by a _______ that consist of _____
    • respiratory mucosa
    • pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia
  71. ________ are found within the epithelium of the nasal cavity and are surrounded by _____
    • Goblet cells
    • mucous and serous glands
  72. In the roof of each portion of the nasal cavity is a specialized area containing the
    olfactory mucosa
  73. The paranasal sinuses include the
    frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses
  74. The sinuses serve to
    lighten the skull bones, act as sound resonators and provide mucous for the nasal cavity and filter, warm and moisten the air we breathe
  75. The paranasal sinuses are lined with
    respiratory mucosa consisting of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Card Set:
Chp 11 Orofacial structures
2018-01-17 14:43:02
Chp 11 Orofacial structures
Chp 11 Orofacial structures
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