Module N1 Soft and Hard deposits

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  1. The acquired pellicle is a
    tenacious membranous layer that is amorphous, acellular, and organic
  2. The acquired pellicle forms over
    exposed tooth surfaces, as well as over restorations and dental calculus
  3. The thickness of the acquired pellicle is ___ to _____ and usually greatest near the _____
    • 100 to 1000 nm
    • gingival margin
  4. The acquired pellicle if formed within _____ of teeth being cleaned and is composed primarily of ______
    • minutes
    • salivary glycoproteins from saliva that are selectively adsorbed by the hydroxyapatite of the tooth surface
  5. What are the two types of acquired pellicle
    • Supragingival pellicle
    • Subgingival pellicle
  6. Describe the Supragingival Pellicle
    Clear, translucent, insoluble and not readily visible until a disclosing agent has been applied
  7. Subgingival pellicle is continuous with _______ that is embedded in ______, particularly where the tooth surface is ________
    • subsurface pellicle
    • tooth structure
    • partially demineralized
  8. What are the four clinical significance for the acquired pellicle
    • Protective-keeps acid away from tooth surface
    • Lubrication-keeps teeth moist 
    • Nidus for bacteria-pellicle is a part of plaque formation
    • Can be an attachment for calculus
  9. What are the stages of dental biofilm and what occurs in each stage
    • Biofilm growth and maturation
    • -The increase in the mass and thickness of biofilm results from bacterial multiplication
    • Matrix formation
    • -The intermicrobial substance (matrix) is derived mainly from saliva for supragingival biofilm
    • From gingival sulcus fluid and exudate for subgingival biofilm
  10. During what days are there changes in the biofilm composition
    • Day 1 and 2
    • Day 2-4
    • Day 4-7
    • Day 7-14
    • Day 14-21
  11. What is the composition of plaque in day 1-2
    Early biofilm consists primarily of Gram-positive cocci. Streptococci, which dominate the bacterial population, include Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis.
  12. What is the composition of plaque in day 2-4
    • The cocci still dominate, and increase in number. Gram-positive filamentous forms and slender rods may be seen on the surface of the cocci colonies
    • Gradually, the filamentous forms grow into the cocci layer and replace many of the cocci.
  13. What is the composition of plaque in day 4-7
    • Filaments increase in numbers, and a more mixed flora begins to appear with rods, filamentous forms, and fusobacteria
    • Biofilm near the gingival margin thickens and develops a more mature flora, with Gram-negative spirochetes and vibrios
  14. What is the composition of plaque in day 7-14
    • –Vibrios and spirochetes appear, and the number of white blood cells increases. As biofilm matures and thickens, more Gram-negative and anaerobic organisms appear.
    • During this period, signs of inflammation are beginning to be observed in the gingiva
  15. What is the composition of plaque in day 14-21
    • Vibrios and spirochetes are prevalent in older biofilm, along with cocci and filamentous forms
    • Gingivitis is evident clinically
  16. What is the chemical composition of biofilm
    • Inorganic elements
    • Calcium and phosphorus. The concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium is higher in biofilm than in saliva
    • Organic components
    • consists primarily of carbohydrates, proteins, and small amounts of lipids
  17. Gingivitis develops in ______ when biofilm is left undisturbed on the tooth surfaces
    2 to 3 weeks
  18. Most gingivitis is ______ and when removed the gingiva can return to health in _____
    • reversible
    • a few days
  19. What are the three significances of dental biofilm
    • 1.Role in initiation of dental diseases
    • –Caries
    • –Periodontal infections
    • 2.Formation of dental calculus
    • Calculus is essentially mineralized dental biofilm
    • 3.General oral cleanliness factor
    • The accumulation of dental biofilm on the teeth and tongue contributes to an unpleasant personal esthetic appearance as well as to halitosis
  20. What are the two types of soft deposits
    • Material alba
    • Food debris
  21. Describe material alba and what does it contain
    • A loosely connected soft deposit that is clearly visible and is deposited over plaque
    • Often seen with food debris and can be easily removed
    • Contains living and dead bacteria
  22. Where is food debris found and what is the importance
    • cervical 1/3 and interproximally
    • contributes to caries, attracts bacteria
    • Some may be removed by rinsing
  23. What is calculus what are the types and where can it be seen
    • Hard deposit, tightly attached mineralized plaque
    • Supra is less mineralized than sub. Air makes it chalky, can be dark or creamy white, forms on teeth, dentures, appliances
    • Seen more commonly around salivary ducts
  24. What is the location of supragingival calculus
    • on the clinical crown coronal to the margin of the gingiva, implants, partials and dentures
    • On the lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth and the facial surfaces of maxillary first and second molars, opposite the openings of the ducts of the salivary glands
    • On the crowns of teeth out of occlusion; nonfunctioning teeth; or teeth that are neglected during daily biofilm removal (toothbrushing, flossing, or other personal care)
  25. Describe subgingival calculus and where is it found
    • Sub is harder (more dense) than supra
    • -brown, black or greenish in color
    • Dark from blood pigmentation
    • –below the gingival margin
  26. What is the color of supra calculus
    chalky, creamy white, gray yellow
  27. What is the color of sub calculus
    light to dark brown, dark green or black
  28. The average time for calculus formation is _____ but can occur as early as ______
    • 10 to 12 days
    • 24 to 72 hours
  29. The lines between the layers of calculus can be called
    incremental lines
  30. the outer layer of subgingival calculus is ______ and consist of _______
    • partly calcified
    • soft dental biofilm
  31. What are the three modes of calculus attachment
    • Acquired pellicle
    • Irregularities in tooth surface
    • Direct contact
  32. Describe the direct contact of calculus attachment
    • Interlocking of inorganic crystals of the tooth with the mineralizing dental biofilm
    • Most difficult to remove
  33. What are six clinical significances of calculus
    • Associated with some but not all periodontal disease
    • Occurs after the pocket is formed. It doesn’t cause the pocket, plaque does
    • Rough surface allows more plaque to adhere
    • Reservoir for plaque toxins
    • Can’t be removed by brushing and flossing
    • May be present sub without redness or swelling although this is not very common
  34. What are the three methods of calculus prevention
    • removal of biofilm by brushing and flossing
    • The patient needs to understand the necessity of daily biofilm removal
    • Professional maintenance appointments on a regular basis
Card Set:
Module N1 Soft and Hard deposits
2018-01-17 14:36:10
Module N1 Soft Hard deposits
DEH 1002
Module N1 Soft and Hard deposits
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