Chapter 6: Basic biology for hematology and WBC slides

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  1. there are two types of cells. Name and describe them
    • prokaryotic cell: does not have a nucleus and lacks membrane bound organelle
    • eukaryotic cell: contains a nucleus with complex membrane bound organelles
  2. what causes cellular diversity
    gene expression such as mutations or deletions,etc
  3. what is progeria and the cause
    • premature aging of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular system. 
    • caused by lamin A mutation which is component of nuclear pores
  4. describe how the plasma membrane has its selective barrier
    only allows non charged hydrophobic molecules to pass through such as lipids, negating any charged molecules and large macromolecules.
  5. Describe the role of cell gate keepers and give examples.
    • protein channels allows the permeability of some substances through the membrane.
    • ex) ligand gated channels
  6. describe the role of ligands and give an example
    • ligands are receptor specific molecules that cause causes a change in shape of channels making them open. Like a lock and key
    • ex) acetlycholine
  7. what is cystic fibrosis and symptoms
    • a channel protein defect responsible for water and salt movement.
    • Causes mucus buildup in lungs and digestive
  8. what are the function of marker molecules and name an example
    • immunity
    • recognition
    • intercellular communication
    • ex) glucoprotein
  9. what is the function of receptor molecules and give an example
    membrane proteins that have an exposed receptor site where specific ligands attach and act in intercellular communication
  10. describe the causes, symtpoms and chromosome number of familial hypercholesterolemia (FM)
    • a genetic disorder caused by a defect in LDL receptors
    • creating a deposit of cholesterol particularly around the fingers and eyelids
    • chromosome 19
  11. Describe the role of LDL and HDL
    • LDL and HDL are bad and good cholesterol respectively.
    • They act as carriers of cholesterol as it moves into the liver
  12. what is the general rule for all molecules that require a carrier
    they are all non polar
  13. describe the function of the nucleus
    carriers all genetic information
  14. what are the three components of the nucleus
    • nuclear pores: holes that allow movement of molecules in and out of nucleus
    • nucleolus: site of RNA production
    • Chromosomes: composed of DNA and proteins
  15. where are proteins created
    in the cytoplasm and used in the cytoplasm
  16. what are the 4 characteristics of IDing cells
    • shape of nucleus
    • size of cell
    • color of granules
    • color of cytoplasm
  17. what is transcription and where does it occur
    • occurs within euchromatin within the nucleus.
    • where pre-RNA is created in the DNA template.
  18. what is the central dogma of biology
    • the procedures of protien synthesis from dna
    • DNA--> RNA --> proteins
  19. what is translation and where does it occur
    occurs within the cytosol/cytoplasm where mRNA creates proteins via free ribsomes.
  20. describe the cytosol and its function
    • a semi liquid gel like substances that suspends all organelles
    • forms the enzymatic regulation and storage of fat vesicles
  21. describe the characteristics of mitochondrion and function
    • double membrane organelle
    • has its own circular DNA
    • site of ATP sythesis
    • formed from endosymbiosis
  22. describe the symptoms and cause of leigh's disease
  23. apoptosis
    • cell death that is part of normal development
    • presence of macrophages
  24. necrosis
    • cell death in response to trauma. 
    • Cells release their their contents because of cell rupturing. 
    • resulting in inflammation.
  25. How many total liters of blood is there in the body?
    5 liters
  26. What is plasma
    liquid portion of blood containing coagulants and everything except RBC
  27. descibre how RBCs biconcave shape iss significant
    contributes to RBC deformabiltiy, allowing it to move around in very thin environments such as capillaries.
  28. define microcytosis
    cells less than 8 microns
  29. define macrocytosis
    cells greater than 8 microns
  30. What would the presence of a lot of nucleated cells indicate in the blood
    immaturity of RBC would indicate hemolysis or acute hemolysis. usually the bone marrow pumps out immature cells in order to compensate for the loss of mature RBCs
  31. name the 5 different classes of white blood cells in the blood
    • neutrophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
    • eosinonphils
    • basophils
  32. what are indices
    certain values that are obtained from blood cell measurments
  33. what does hematocrit measure
    • volume of RBC in the blood.
    • directly related to the amount of hemoglobin the the blood
  34. rule of three
    • red blood cell count x 3 = hemoglobin value
    • hemoglobin value x 3 = hematocrit
  35. whatif there is a discrpency in rule of three
  36. what is the normal value of hematocrit
  37. what are reticolucytes
    young RBCs less than 48 hours old without a nucleus
  38. what percent of blood do Reticolucytes make up
  39. what type of stain IDs reticulocytes
    metheylene blue
  40. Name the three RBC indices and desribe their values
    • RDW (RBC distribution width) = determines the degree of size variation. degree of anisocytosis
    • MCV (mean corpuscular volume)= determines the volume of RBC
    • MCHC/MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin)= determines the intensity or pallor of RBC
  41. what is anisocytosis
    variation of RBC size
  42. what is poikilocytosis
    variation of abnormally shaped RBCs
  43. what is leukopenia
    decreased WBC count
  44. what is leukocytosis
    increased WBC count
  45. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules and size of the segmented neutrophils
    • nucleus: contains loose lobes usually 2 or 5 connnected by a fine filament
    • cytoplasm: bluish in color
    • granules: pinkish
    • size: 9- 15 microns
  46. 6864-206408
    name this cell
    segmented neutrophil
  47. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules and size of the band neutrophil
    • Nucleus: horseshoe shaped
    • cytoplasm: pink
    • granules: pink
  48. name this cellImage Upload 1
    band neutrophil
  49. Image Upload 2
    name this cell
  50. Image Upload 3
  51. Image Upload 4
    name this cell
  52. Name this cell
    Image Upload 5
  53. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules and size of the eosinophil
    • nucleus: contains two lobes
    • cytoplasm: orange pink
    • granules: orange pink:
  54. Name this cell
    Image Upload 6
  55. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules, and size of a monocyte
    • nucleus: irregular shaped with lacy brain-like convolutions
    • cytoplasm: blue-gray cloudy in appearance contains vacuoles
    • Granules: 
    • ground glass appearance
    • size: may contain pseudopods. varies in size and shape
  56. Name this cell
    Image Upload 7
  57. name this cell
    Image Upload 8
    band neutrophil
  58. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules, and size of a band neutrophil
    • nucleus: U-shaped
    • granules: fine light pink
    • cytoplasm: pink
  59. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules, and size of a lymphocyte
    • nucleus: circular in shape. highly condensed nuclues
    • cytoplasm: clear 
    • granules: some pink granules. usually don't have any
    • size: varies depending on activity. Enlarges when active
  60. name this cellImage Upload 9
    band neutrophil
  61. band neutrophil vs Monocyte
    Image Upload 10
    note the color of the cytoplasm of a monocyte is darker and size is larger
  62. large lymphocyte vs. monocyte
    Image Upload 11
    • note the clearer glass appearance of the lymphocyte.  
    • lymphocyte nucleus is usually oval in shape
    • monocyte is irregular
  63. lymphocyte vs monocyte
    Image Upload 12
    • blue arrow: lymphocyte
    • red arrow: monocyte
  64. describe the nucleus, cytoplasm, granules, and size of a basophil
    • nucleus: irregular shaped usually covered by granules
    • cytoplasm: dark blue purple
    • granules: numerous and dark purple
Card Set:
Chapter 6: Basic biology for hematology and WBC slides
2016-11-08 02:08:01
CLS 307 hematology basic introduction wbc slides pictures
based on the powerpoint lecture
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