bacteriology wk 7

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  1. escherechia coli in mastitis
    • gram - FA bacillus, intestinal commensal
    • coliform mastitis (environmental) of cattle, sheep, goats
    • warm swollen gland, watery milk, possible systemic signs
  2. Klebsiella (mastitis)
    • gram - FA bacillus, intestinal commensal in environment
    • cattle, sheep goats, coliform mastitis (environmental)
    • warm swollen mammary gland, watery milk, possible systemic signs
  3. Enterobacter spp
    • gram - FA bacillus, intestinal commensal in environment
    • cattle, sheep goats, coliform mastitis (environmental)
    • warm swollen mammary gland, watery milk, possible systemic signs
  4. Mannheimia haemolytica
    Mannheimia glucosida
    (mastitis)
    • gram - bipolar staining FA coccobacillus, commensal in mm, not in environment (not contagious OR environmental mastitis.  Lambs damage teats and inject oral Mannheimia).
    • Gangrenous mastitis, "bluebag" in sheep (A2 serotype, A1 is pneumonia in cows).  
    • hot swollen painful gland becomes cold and black/blue.  Milk is watery with red clots.  Systemic signs.
  5. Staphylococcus aureus
    • gram + FA coccus, clusters. commensal in skin, genital, respiratory, NOT in environment.  Gangrenous mastitis, "bluebag" in cattle. Most common mast with strep agalactiae
    • warm swollen firm red painful gland can become cold and black/blue.  Milk is watery with red clots.  Systemic signs. Palpable fibrosis of gland and decreased production if chronic
    • dry therapy more effective
    • coagulase and catalase +
  6. streptococcus agalactiae, mastitis
    • gram + aerotolerant coccus in pairs or chains, contagious mastitis, NOT commensal or environmental (so finding it is indicative).
    • Sheep, goats and cattle
    • subclinical with periodic acute inflammation, swollen hot gland, necrosis, fibrosis, drop in production.  Fibrin clots in milk, systemic signs.  
    • most common with staph aureus
    • abx best in dry period
  7. streptococcus dysgalactiae
    • gram + aerotolerant coccus, pairs/chains.  Environmental mastitis.  
    • Swollen, warm, doughy gland.  CLots and flakes in milk.
  8. Streptococcus uberis
    • gram + aerotolerant coccus, pairs/chains.  Environmental mastitis
    • usu subclinical and transitory, acute has systemic ADR signs.  
    • Mammary gland swollen, edematous, firm
    • Milk has clots and flakes.
  9. streptococcus equi ssp zooepidemicus (mastitis)
    • gram + aerotolerant coccus, pairs/chains
    • horses, sometimes cattle (could be any)
    • firm warm painful gland
    • pyogenic bacteria, so milk can be thick and purulent
  10. Trueperella pyogenes
    • gram + bacillus (or diphteroid), facultative anaerobe (mycolic acid in cell wall means don't always take one shape, could be considered pleiomorphic, but HAVE a cell wall, not like mycoplasma).  
    • COmmensal of skin, resp, urogenital
    • SUMMER MASTITIS (infections during DRY period).
    • Purulent infection with abscesses (mycolic acid is hard to deal with).
  11. Mycoplasma spp (mastitis)
    • Pleomorphic cells, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall.  Membrane has cholesterol
    • Commensal of nasal, conjunctival, oral, intestinal, and genital ucosa.  
    • CONTAGIOUS mastitis (but less common)
    • Spread by milk
    • acute then becomes chronic.  Gland swollen, warm, doughy to firm.  
    • Culling recommended.
  12. naval ill/joint ill/sleepy foal disease
    • actinobacillus equuli
    • gram - FA coccobacillus
    • peracute disease - sleepy, fever, diarrhea, prostration
    • Rapid death, surviving animals develop arthritis, pneumonia
  13. Actinobacillus equuli
    • gram - FA coccobacillus
    • commensal of MM in resp, digestive
    • sleepy foal disease/naval ill/joint ill
    • arthritis, endocarditis, nephritis, septicemia in older animals
    • swine disease (similar to older animals, + mastitis)
    • weak beta hemolysis
    • abx (prophylactic for foals), clean umbilicus
  14. Glasser's Disease
    • Haemophilus parasuis, gram - bacillus, facultative anaerobe
    • Polyserositis, polyarthritis, meningitis of swine
  15. haemophilus parasuis
    • gram - bacillus, FA
    • Commensal of nasopharynx of swine
    • Glasser's disease in pigs
    • sporadic disease in endemic herds (ADR, resp, GI, lameness, paralytic)
    • High Health status herds completely naive (fibrinopurulent exudate along peritoneum, pericardium, pleura, joints, meninges)
  16. Yersinia pestis
    • gram -, coccobacillus, facultative anaerobe
    • Plague
    • Commensal only in tolerant hosts
    • transmitted by ingestion, flea bites, inhalation
    • cats extra susceptible
    • Bubonic plague, septicemic plague, pneumonic plague
    • acquired by flea bite or ingesting infected animals, spread by fibrinolysis.  Non-productive inflammation = lymphadenopathy (buboes).  Protein capsule inhibits phagocytosis, changes protein signaling (inhibit phagocytosis, respiratory burst, induce macrophage apoptosis, inhibit T cell activation.
    • Causes "blockage" in flea, spits blood back into next host.  Bacteria spread to bloodstream, endotoxic shock, death of animal.  
    • Zoonotic, bioterrorism
  17. Bubonic plague
    • Yersinia pestis
    • gram - coccobacillus, facultative anaerobe
    • Regional LN inflamed and swollen, fever and dehydration
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism
  18. Septicemic plague
    • Yersinia pestis
    • gram - coccobacillus, facultative anaerobe
    • fever, shock, DIC
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism
  19. Pneumonic Plague
    • Yersinia pestis
    • gram - coccobacillus, facultative anaerobe
    • fever, coughing sneezing
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism
  20. Francisella Tularensis ssp tularensis (Type A strains)
    • Gram - aerobic bacillus
    • Commensal of rabbits, transmitted by ticks and direct contact
    • causes tularemia
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism, Reportable
    • need cysteine to grow
  21. Tularemia
    • Francisella tularensis, gram - bacillus, aerobic
    • Sheep: stiff gait, increased heart and respiratory rates, fever, cough, rapid weight loss, progressive weakness, recumbency
    • zoonotic
  22. Burkholderia spp
    • gram - bacillus, aerobic
    • Glanders (b mallei), Melioidosis (B pseudomallei), both zoonotic
  23. Glanders
    • Burkholderia mallei, gram - aerobic bacillus
    • acquired by ingestion (contaminated by nasal)
    • Eliminated from US
    • Acute dz = fever, nasal d/c, lymphadenitis of head and neck
    • chronic dz (horses) = pulmonary (cough, epistaxis, labored breathing), nasal (nodular lesions on turbinates, enlarged LN), skin (SQ nodules, enlarged LN)
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism, agroterrorism, reportable
  24. melioidosis
    • burkholderia pseudomallei, gram - bacillus, aerobic
    • in environment
    • acquired through breaks in skin or ingestion
    • Horses get dz like glanders, goats and pigs (chronic), rodents and sheep (CNS signs, often fatal)
    • Zoonotic, bioterrorism, agroterrorism, reportable.  Cull (eradicated in US)
  25. Chlamydia pecorum
    • obligate intracellular small round gram - 
    • commensal of resp, digestive, genital
    • elementary and reticulate bodies
    • Transmission by contact, inclusions in specimens.  
    • Lambs - spread from MM to synovial, polyarthritis
    • calves - spread to brain, encephalitis (ataxia, depression.  
    • Also can be ocular in small ruminants.  
    • Zoonotic
  26. Borrelia
    • gram - microaerophilic, motile, loosely coiled spirochetes
    • transmitted by text
    • b anserina - fowl spirochetosis
    • b. burdorferi - lyme disease
    • tick bites host, bacteria change surface protein expression (which allows them to persist in tick gut), move into salivary glands, innoculated, avoid immune (down-regulate outer membrane protein synthesis or vary antigens of outer membrane proteins.  Hide in CT).  Damage due to inflammation ("stealth pathogens")
  27. fowl spirochetosis
    • borrelia anserina, gram - microaerophilic, motile, loosely coiled spirochetes
    • transmitted by ticks
    • fever, depression, anorexia, cyanotic, greenish diarrhea, later paralysis, anemia
  28. lyme disease
    • borrelia burgdorferi
    • gram - microaerophilic, motile, loosely coiled spirochetes, tick transmitted
    • dogs - polyarthritis, fever, anorexia
    • horses and cattle - arthritis, ocular and neural involvement
    • tick transmission, in 36-48h
    • zoonotic
  29. Rickettsia rickettsii
    • gram - obligate intracellular in endothelial, coccobacillus
    • Actin rockets like listeria!  Escape from vacuole, grow in cytoplasm.
    • Commensal of rodents, transmitted by ticks
    • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (usu dogs, sometimes cats) - high fever, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhagic mm, tenderness over LN, joints, muscles.  Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages (endothelial = vasculitis) develop later on ocular, oral, genital mm.  Neuro signs (ataxia, head tilt, seizure) 
    • zoonotic.
    • Seen intracellularly
  30. coxiella burnetii
    • gram - obligate intracellular coccobacillus
    • Q fever
    • sheep goats and cattle (asymptomatic), possible late-term abortions, subclinical mastitis, decreased milk in cows.
    • shed in placenta, amniotic fluids, milk, urine, feces
    • large cell variant = intracellular.  Small cell variant = outside cells, resistant to heat/dry/etc
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism, reportable
  31. Q fever
    • gram - obligate intracellular coccobacillus
    • coxiella burnetii
    • sheep goats and cattle (asymptomatic), possible late-term abortions, subclinical mastitis, decreased milk in cows.
    • shed in placenta, amniotic fluids, milk, urine, feces
    • large cell variant = intracellular.  Small cell variant = outside cells, resistant to heat/dry/etc
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism, reportable
  32. Anaplasmataceae
    • obligate intracellular bacteria, have 2 membranes but no LPS (so may not activate PRR).  No cell wall.
    • Includes Ehrlichia (WBC), anaplasma, neorickettsia.  
    • Taken up into vacuole, prevent lysosomal fusion, live in there.
  33. Ehrlichia canis
    • family anaplasmataceae (obligate intracellular bacteria, have 2 membranes but no LPS (so may not activate PRR).  No cell wall.)
    • obligate intracellular bacteria (mononuclear), two membranes but lack LPS and cell wall (so no PRR stimulation).  Live in vacuole, make "morula" (which is just a vacuole with bacteria inside)
    • tick transmission (dog tick), transmits in 3-6h, infectious for 2 weeks.
    • initially mild infection (moderate fever, depression, inappetance, weight loss, pale mm, dyspnea, lymphadenopathy)
    • may progress to severe (epistaxis, CNS, glomerulonephritis, pneumonia)
  34. Ehrlichia ruminantium
    • Heartwater Disease (Reportable).  Ruminants
    • Peracute (fever, rapid death) vs acute disease (fever, NS signs inc aggression, death in ~1wk).  No signs in very young, so sometimes give live organism as a vaccine.
    • not in US
    • family anaplasmataceae (obligate intracellular bacteria, have 2 membranes but no LPS (so may not activate PRR).  No cell wall.)
    • obligate intracellular bacteria, two membranes but lack LPS and cell wall (so no PRR stimulation).  Live in vacuole, make "morula" (which is just a vacuole with bacteria inside)
    • tick transmission, infectious for 2 weeks or so.
  35. anaplasma marginale
    • obligate intracellular bacteria, have 2 membranes but no LPS (so may not activate PRR).  No cell wall.
    • cattle, REPORTABLE.  Tick/bloodsucking arthropod transmission, infected are carriers
    • erythrocytes, anemia (fever, weight loss, abortion).  Infected removed by phagocytosis.  Don't survive in environment
  36. anaplasma ovis
    • obligate intracellular bacteria, have 2 membranes but no LPS (so may not activate PRR).  No cell wall.
    • sheep and goat.  
    • Tick/bloodsucking arthropod transmission, infected are carriers
    • erythrocytes, anemia (fever, weight loss, abortion).  Infected removed by phagocytosis.  Don't survive in environment
  37. anaplasma phagocytophilum
    • obligate intracellular bacteria, have 2 membranes but no LPS (so may not activate PRR).  No cell wall.
    • horses, dogs, ruminants.  Severe in older - high fever, mucosal pallor, icterus, inappetance, depression, edema.  Tick borne fever in ruminants (fever, drop in milk, lethargy, polypnea, abortion)
    • Tick/bloodsucking arthropod transmission
    • zoonotic but not from pets
    • Ixodes ticks, can co-infect with borrelia (same tick!)
  38. Neorickettsia helminthoeca
    • Associated with trematodes (fluke = nanophyetus salmincola) that use snails as intermediate
    • multiply inside monocytes, macrophages (found in LN aspirates)
    • Salmon poisoning disease, salmon disease: lymphadenopathy, anorexia, depression, weight loss, persistent diarrhea (can be bloody), from eating uncooked salmon
  39. neorickettsia risticii
    • associated with trematodes that use snails as intermediate hosts, multiply inside monocytes, macrophages
    • Looks like salmonellosis
    • Potomac horse fever: fever, listlessness, anorexia, leukopenia, diarrhea
  40. salmon (poisoning) disease
    • neorickettsia helminthoeca
    • Associated with trematodes (fluke = nanophyetus salmincola) that use snails as intermediatemultiply inside monocytes, macrophages (found in LN aspirates)
    • lymphadenopathy, anorexia, depression, weight loss, persistent diarrhea (can be bloody), from eating uncooked salmon
  41. Potomac Horse Fever
    • associated with trematodes that use snails as intermediate hosts, multiply inside monocytes, macrophages
    • Looks like salmonellosis
    • fever, listlessness, anorexia, leukopenia, diarrhea
  42. bacillus anthracis
    • gram + aerobic spore-forming bacillus  (ANTHRAX)
    • environment (resistant!), acquired via ingestion
    • cattle, sheep, goats: rapid death with fever, chills, agalactia, abortion, congested mm, bloody urine and feces, edema
    • horses: colic, diarrhea, only death with throat edema
    • swine: regional lymphadenitis (obstructive edema MAY cause death)
    • zoonotic, bioterrorism, agroterrorism, reportable
    • ingested spores taken in by macrophages, germinate, multiply, capsule, released from cells, multiply in LN
  43. Mycoplasma hyorhinis
    • pleiomorphic, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall, membrane has cholesterol.  
    • Commensal of mm, STRESS
    • polyserositis and arthritis in piglets (+URT), ADR + fever. Lame, swollen joints.
    • doesn't really respond to abx, once damaged tissues stay damaged (but don't die)
  44. Mycoplasma hyosynoviae
    • pleiomorphic, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall, membrane has cholesterol.
    • commensal of mm
    • arthritis in older pigs, lameness, inappetence, weight loss.  
    • Responds to abx
  45. mycoplasma synoviae
    • pleiomorphic, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall, membrane has cholesterol.
    • commensal in mm, STRESS
    • synovitis in chickens, turkeys
    • lameness, retarded growth, listlessness, dehydration.  
    • Abs don't really cure.  
    • REPORTABLE
  46. mycoplasma haemofelis
    • hemotropic mycoplasma.  pleiomorphic, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall, membrane has cholesterol.
    • STRESS
    • Surface parasite of erythrocytes.  Blood-borne transmission (arthropods, fighting)
    • anemia (weakness, pallor, fever, icterus)
    • Infected cells REMOVED BY PHAGOCYTOSIS
    • tx with tetracycline (improves but doesn't clear)
  47. mycoplasma suis
    • pleiomorphic, stain gram -, no outer membrane or cell wall, membrane has cholesterol.  Erythrocyte surface parasite.  
    • bloodborne trasmission (hog louse, iatrogenic via instruments)
    • Ictero-anemia of pigs (piglets get weakness and anemia), sows (decreased repro), feeders (decreased weight gain, acute anemia with depression, anorexia, fever, weakness, icterus).  
    • REMOVED BY PHAGOCYTOSIS, seen in blood smear.
  48. Blastomyces dermatitidis
    • yeast with broad based buds (in body, mold in environment).  Environment/soil.  transmission by inhalation with long term, non-specific signs.
    • Eastern US near water
    • anorexia, weight loss, dyspnea, ocular disease, lameness, skin lesions
    • takes a LONG time to get better.  
    • Dogs, rarely cats
    • Long term tx with itraconazole +/- amphoteracin B.  Fluconazole best for CNS and ocular
  49. Coccidioides immitis/posadasii
    • fungus, spherules in parasitic form (full of endospores)
    • Inhale spore, enlarges to spherule full of endospore in lung, rupture and spread systemically. Inflammatory but not contagious.
    • Dogs: fever, anorexia, weakness, weight loss, lameness, depression
    • horses: weight loss, cough, muscle pain, superficial abscess (from SYSTEMIC SPREAD)
    • Cats: skin lesions, fever, inappetance, weight loss
    • Long term tx with itraconazole +/- amphoteracin B.  Fluconazole best for CNS and ocular
  50. histoplasma capsulatum variant capsulatum
    • Southern and middle (TN, MO) US.
    • yeast in parasitic, mold in env with guano (dimorphic).
    • Intracellular pathogen of phagocytic cells.  NO CAPSULE.  
    • dogs: lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea, dehydration, anemia, enlarged lymphoid organs
    • Cats: depression, weight loss, fever, dyspnea, tachypnea, enlarged lymphoid organs.
    • Long term tx with itraconazole +/- amphoteracin B.  Fluconazole best for CNS and ocular

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XQWCat
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Filename:
bacteriology wk 7
Updated:
2016-11-11 17:46:14
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IV bacteriology wk 7
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