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Hormones are ______ _____ secreted by cells of the ______ system
- chemical signals
- endocrine system
_______ cells are cells that secrete chemical signals aka _______. ______ cells are cells that have receptors for chemical signals
- Endocrine cells
- target cells
Circulating ______ diffuse into the blood and can activate _____ _____ far from the site of release. _______ signals affect only target cells near the site of release. ______ signals affect the cells that released the signal
- target cells
- paracrine signals
- autocrine signals
Some endocrine cells exist as single cells, state an example of where such cells can be found.
in the digestive tract
secretory organs composed of aggregations of endocrine cells which secrete signals into the extracellular fluid
have ducts that carry their signals to the outside of the body or a body cavity (sweat gland, salivary gland, mammary gland, liver, pancreas)
Neurons communicate with other cells by chemical signals called _______. Some of those chemical signals diffuse into the blood and are called _______ and some of them are released into the environment and are called ________.
What are the 3 chemical groups of hormones?
- Peptides or proteins
- Steroid hormones
- Amine hormones
Peptide or proteins are _____-_____, transported in _____ with ______ on cell surfaces
Steroid hormones are synthesized from ______, are _____-_____; must be bound to ______ _____ to be carried in _____.
- carrier proteins
Amine hormones are derivatives of ______, state 4 examples
Hormone receptors can be _______-_____ or ________. ______-_____ hormones have their receptors on the _______ of the cell, while _____-_____ hormones can not readily pass the cell membrane and have their receptors on the ______ of cell
- membrane-bound or intracellular
- Lipid-soluble hormones
- Water-soluble hormones
One hormone can trigger different ______ in different types of cells. For example epinephrine triggers the ____-___ response. Epinephrine binds to receptors in the _____, _____ _____, ____ and ___ cells
- blood vessels
- fat cells
The pituitary gland is attached to the _______ in the brain. The pituitary connects the ______ system with the ______ system
- nervous system
- endocrine system
The ________ nucleus of the hypothalamus projects to the ______ ______ and releases _______ and ____ while its projections to the _______ ______ release ______ _____ hormone and ______ ______hormone
- paraventricular nucleus
- posterior pituitary
- oxytocin & ADH
- anterior pituitary
- thyrotropin releasing hormone
- corticotropin releasing hormone
The hypothalamus secretes two neurohormones into the posterior pituitary: ______ and _______ _______. _______ ______ servers to increase ______ _____ in the kidneys when necessary
- Oxytocin & Antidiuretic hormone
- water retention
- stimulates contractions
- stimulates milk flow
- promotes bonding
Name the main hypothalamic hormones. (they all control anterior pituitary function) (6)
- Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
- Prolactin-releasing hormone
- Prolactin-inhibiting hormone
- Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
- Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
The anterior pituitary secretes four hormones that act as ______ hormones aka target/control other endocrine glands. Name them (4)
- Thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone-TSH)
- Luteinizing hormone
- Follicle-stimulating hormone
- Corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic)
The thyroid gland is the _______ endocrine gland so it demands a _____ rate of blood flow. It surrounds the _____ and _____ sides of the trachea.
- high rate
- anterior and lateral sides
Thyroid follicles are filled with _____ and lined with ______ ______ ______ (follicular cells) that secretes two hormones ____ & ____.
- simple cuboidal epithelium
- T3 & T4
Thyroxine regulates cell _______ by acting as a _______ ______ for many _____.
- transcription factor
Anterior pituitary secretes _____-______ _____ (TSH) which activates the ______ to produce ______ (__)
- thyroid-stimulating hormone
- thyroxine (T4)
The ______ gland contains two cell types that each produce a hormone. Follicles formed by ______ cells produce and store thyroxine (T4) which begins as a _______ called _______ and becomes ___ or ___ with the addition of _____.
- thyroid gland
- T3 or T4
Name two diseases of the thyroid
Hypothyroidism (______ deficiency) is the result of low circulating ______.
- thyroxine deficiency
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is _______ deficiency which leads to follicle cells not being able to produce _______. So basically, ________ is still produced but not converted efficiently into ___ or ___ and the thyroid ______.
- iodine deficiency
- T3 or T4
Hyperthyroidism (______ excess) is often caused by an _______ disease.
- thyroxine excess
- autoimmune disease
4 steps of hyperthyroidism (ministory)
- Antibody-binding activates TSH receptors on follicle cells
- causes increase in thyroxine production
- thyroid remains stimulated
- Thyroid grows larger
3 layers of the adrenal cortex (outer to inner)
- zona glomerulosa (outer)
- zona fasciculata (middle)
- zona reticularis (inner)
Cortisol produces the ______ response (___/___ emotions). Increases _____ _____ levels by inhibiting ______ uptake into ______ & _____ cells. Cortisol also blocks ______ ______ reactions and increases ______ ______ contractions.
- stress response (anger/ fear emotions)
- blood glucose levels
- muscle & fat cells
- immune system reactions
- cardiac muscle contractions