Chapter 9: Energy metabolism and membrane physiology of erythrocyte

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  1. How does the RBC make energy without mitochondria
    glycolysis
  2. what is the total output of glycolysis
    2 atp
  3. what are the functions of the shunts
    shunts are to maintain the health of rbc
  4. name the three shunts
    • hexose monophosphate pathway
    • methemoglobin reductase pathway
    • rapaport-luebering pathway
  5. what is the function of G6PD
    • reduces NADP + to gain H+ and become NADPH.
    • starts hexose monophophate pathway
  6. what is the function of hexose monophosphate pathway
    • to maintain reductive state of the body by detoxifying accumulated peroxide.
    • prevents RBC from oxidizing
  7. an acid (low) pH will do what to blood cells
    hemolysis and creates an oxidative environment
  8. what is the function of glutathione reductase enzyme and in what shunt
    • Hexose Monophosphate pathway
    • glutathione reduces free radicals into harmless chemicals such as water.
  9. what are free radicals produced in the body and why are they so dangerous
    hydrogen peroxide and super oxide radicals bind to everything creating a highly oxidized environment. Everything in the body needs to be in a reduced state
  10. what is the most common genetic rbc enzyme deficiency and describe
    • G6PD
    • unable to maintain reduced state in the body and leads to development of hemolytic diseases
  11. what are heinz bodies
    are precipitated oxidizeed hemoglobin. the body recognizes them as foreign in the RBC and will send macrophages to eat them out of RBC producing bite cells called degmacytes

  12. what cells are usually associated with heinz bodies
    degmacytes
  13. Name the cell
    Image Upload
    degmacyte
  14. what is methemoglobin reductase
    when NAD is reduced to NADPH
  15. what is the function of methemoglobn reductase
    converts fe3+ to fe2+. maintains ferrous to ferric so that it is less likely to oxidize
  16. what are the symptoms of individuals with high amounts of methemoglobin
    produces blue color on skin
  17. what is the function of rappoport luebering shunt
    produces 2,3 BPG to maintain oxygen released at level of tissue
  18. what is the function of 2,3 BPG
    facilitate the binding of oxygen to iron and release of oxygen
  19. trend of oxygen binding
    once one oxygen is bound to the red blood cell the process is easier with each successive oxygen molecule.
  20. what are the conditions that facilitate release of oxygen in RBC at the level of tissue
    • low oxygen level
    • acidic ph
    • increased temperature
    • presence of 2,3 BPG
    • hydrogen ion
    • hypoxia
  21. describe the erythrocyte membrane
    contains cholesterol molecule to maintain structural integrity of the cell membrane
  22. what is the ratio of phospholipids in the cell to cholesterol membrane
    50/50
  23. what is the source of the cholesterol
    blood
  24. what type of condition is associated with acanthocyte
    low cholesterol levels in the cell causing mishaping of red blood cell membrane
  25. Image Upload
  26. acanthocyte-03
    acanthocytes
  27. what is the importance of cholesterol for red blood cell
    • maintains the elasticity of the membrane
    • witholds the shape of the cell
  28. what are the factors affecting levels of cholesterol level
    low bile salts = low cholesterol levels
  29. what type of cell is associated with low cholesterol in the blood
    target cell
  30. what factors affect the shape of the red blood cell
    • cholesterol levels
    • tonicity of RBC
  31. iconocytes versus acanothocytes
    iconocytes contain uniform spiculations throughout the RBC
  32. what produces iconocytes
    • liver disease causing an increase in urea
    • old blood after blood drawn from body
  33. what important step occurs during hexose monophosphate pathway and what is produced
    reduction of NADP+ to NADPH for reducing glutiathione to glutathione reductase
  34. what occurs during hexose monophosphate pathway
    detoxification of peroxide
  35. what is the most common enzyme deficiency
    G6PD
  36. methemoglobin reductase pathway reduces what
    methemoglobin via NADPH
  37. what is produced by rapoport luebering pathway
    2,3 BPG
  38. what is the purpose of 2,3 BPG
    competes with oxygen to bind to hemoglobin, thus enhancing the release of oxygen to the tissue
  39. what is the function of cholesterol
    to maintain structural solidity of the membrane
  40. what is the relationship of plasma bile salt concentration with cholesterol exchange
    • directly related.
    • any increase in plasma bile salt concentration would increase cholesterol concentration
  41. what produces a target cell
    low concentration of cholesterol in the plasma membrane
  42. what is the function of glycolipids
    a combination of lipid and

Card Set Information

Author:
tanyalequang
ID:
325503
Filename:
Chapter 9: Energy metabolism and membrane physiology of erythrocyte
Updated:
2016-11-12 18:23:18
Tags:
glycolysis energy atp shunts
Folders:
hematology
Description:
based off of ppt slides
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