Module 3: conception and fetal development

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  1. Union of Ovum and Sperm (conception)
    Fertilization
  2. Union of sperm and ovum forms a ______ with 46 chromosomes.
    Zygote
  3. Mitosis (cleavage) forms a ______ (mass of 16 cells)
    Morula
  4. Fluid filled space in morula which forms the embryo and amnion.
    Blastacyst
  5. Outer layer of cells surrounding blastocyst which forms the placenta and chorion.
    Trophoblast
  6. Trophoblast attaches to endometrium in fundus (upper uterine segment)
    Implantation
  7. Forms CNS, special senses, skin and glands.
    Ectoderm
  8. Forms skeletal, urinary, circulatory, and reproductive organs.
    Mesoderm
  9. Forms respiratory system, liver, pancreas, and digestive system.
    Endoderm
  10. A fetus gets __ chromosomes from each parent for a total of ___.
    23 chromosomes from each parent for a total of 46.
  11. It takes morula __ hours to travel to the uterus and implant.
    72 hours
  12. Amniotic fluid functions
    • Cushion fetus from trauma
    • Maintain constant body temperature of fetus
    • Permits symmetric growth
    • Protect umbilical cord from compression
    • Promote fetal movement
  13. Amniotic fluid ____ in volume as pregnancy progresses to reach approximately ___ at term.
    Increases in volume, approximately 1 Litter at term.
  14. Amniotic fluid is derived from 2 sources: _____ and _____.
    Maternal blood across amnion and fetal urine.
  15. The placenta is functional at weeks ____ and fully at ___ weeks. Increases in size until week ___.
    • Functional at 3-4 weeks
    • Fully at 12 weeks 
    • Increases in size until week 20
  16. Maternal side of placenta is ______.
    Red and flesh like (Dirty duncan)
  17. Fetal side of placenta is _____.
    Shiny and gray (shiny shultz)
  18. Placenta functions
    • Fetal respiration, nutrition, excretion
    • Transports gamma globulin to give infant passive immunity at birth
    • Produces glycogen, choleterol and fatty acids
    • stores glycogen and iron 
    • produces hormones (HCG, Prgoesterone, Estrogen, HPL, Relaxin) 
    • Suppression of maternal immune response
  19. The umbilical cord is formed from amnion
    Functions
    • 1 vein: carries oxygenated blood to the fetus
    • 2 arteries: carries deoxygenated blood from the fetus
  20. ________ a specialized connective tissue that surrounds umbilical cord to prevent compression.
    Wharton's jelly
  21. Fetal circulation
    _____ occurs in placenta.
    Fetal lungs are ________. 
    3 shunts: ____, _____, _____.
    • Oxygenation occurs in placenta
    • Fetal lungs are non functional.
    • 3 shunts: Ductus venosus, Ductus Arteriosus, Foramen Ovale
  22. Foramen Ovale closes ____ after delivery.
    1-2 hours
  23. Ductus Arteiosus closes ____ after delivery.
    3-4 weeks up to 3 months
  24. 4-8 weeks gestation
    • Heart begins to beat 
    • Brain differentiates
    • Formation of lungs 
    • Organs develop
  25. 8 weeks gestation
    • Rotation of intestines 
    • Facial features continue to develop 
    • Heart development complete
    • Resembles a human
  26. 9 - 12 weeks gestation
    • Sexual differentiation 
    • Active digestion system 
    • Face and neck well formed 
    • Urogenital tract complete 
    • RBC's produced in liver 
    • Urine production 
    • Well formed limbs and digits
  27. 16 - 24 weeks gestation
    • Lanugo: Fine hair develops 
    • Meconium: First stool begins to be formed (black/tarry)
    • Quickening: fetal movement felt by mother
    • Vernix caseosa: white greasy film on skin (cheese) 
    • Alveoli forms in lungs. 
  28. 28 weeks gestation
    • Rapid brain development
    • Eyelids open and close
    • Surfactant is forming (better chance of survival) 
    • Gas exchange ability of the lungs improves so that extra uterine life may be sustained
  29. 38 - 40 weeks gestation
    • Antibody transfer from mother to fetus
    • Lanugo and vernix lessened
  30. Genome
    Genotype
    Phenotype
    • Genome: genetic blueprint
    • Genotype: gene pairs inherited from parents
    • Phenotype: observed outward characteristics
  31. Autosomal dominant
    1 gene causes a change in phenotype, commonly passed on father to son. (Huntington disease)
  32. Autosomal Recessive
    Two copies of gene necessary for expression of defect. (color blind)
  33. X linked inheritance
    Mutation in a gene on the x chromosome causes the phenotype to be expressed in males. Transmission from father to son does not occur.
  34. Multifactorial inheritance
    caused by many factors involved including genetic and environmental. A combination of genes from both parents, in addition to unknown environmental factors, produce the trait or condition.
  35. Mosaicism
    Chromosomal abnormalities do not show up in every cell and only some cells carry abnormalities
  36. Polyploidy
    • Polyploidy: increase in haploid sets (23) 
    • Incompatible with life
  37. Monosomies
    • Monosomies: 1 copy of a particular chromosome 
    • Incompatible with life
  38. Trisomies
    Trisomies: 3 of a particular chromosome
  39. Trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome)
    • Risk increases with maternal age (35) 
    • Common characteristics: 
    • small, low set ears
    • Hyper flexibility 
    • Muscle Hypotonia
    • Wide spaced eyes
    • Ulnar loop of second digit 
    • Simina crease 
    • Flat facial profile 
    • Open mouth with protruding tongue 
    • Broad short fingers
  40. Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome)
    • Risk increases with maternal age
    • Short life span (months) 
    • Common characteristics: 
    • Microcephaly (small head) 
    • Low set ears 
    • Facial malformations 
    • SGA (small for gestational age) 
    • Webbing

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geoerguera
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325709
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Module 3: conception and fetal development
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2016-11-16 17:27:09
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Module 3: conception and fetal development
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