Card Set Information
Chapter 1 Principles
Certain soluble salts, principally sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium, that have the property of combining with acids to form neutral salts
An extremely small electrically-neutral particle
The sum of the total number of protons, Z, and the total number of neutrons, N. The symbol is A.
Atomic mass number.
Number of protons in the nucleus
The weighted average of the masses of all of its natural occurring isotopes
Atomic weight of an element
Represents the number of atoms in X grams of any element, where X is the atomic weight of the element
The systematic investigation of the properties, structure, and behavior of matter and the changes matter undergoes.
A bond in which one or more electrons from an atom pair off with one or more electrons from another atom and form overlapping electron shells in which both atoms share the paired electrons
Is the measure of the mass per unit volume of a material. density = mass/volume
The mass of a mole of atoms.
Gram atomic weight (GAW).
The mass of a mole of molecules, (GMW).
Gram molecular weight
Atoms of the same element with different atomic mass numbers
Two substances placed together in a container, in any ratio and the composition is not of fixed proportion
The quantity of a pure substance that contains 6.022 × 1023 units (atoms, ions, molecules, or elephants) of that substance. In other words, a mole is Avogadro’s number of anything
The total weight of the individual atoms of a molecule
Groups or clusters of atoms held together by means of chemical bonding
A concentration of a solution in units of one part of solute to one million parts solvent.
A compound composed of positive and negative ions held together with an ionic bond
Refers to the physical forms in which matter exists: solid, liquid, and gas.
States of matter
The maximum amount of a substance which will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature
The substance that dissolves in a solution
A homogeneous(uniformly distributed) mixture of two or more substances
The material that dissolves the other substance(s) in a solution. It is the dissolving medium
State the characteristics of all phases of matter
Solids - definate shape and volume. Slow molecular motion. Binding forces strong.
Liquids - Definite volume, indefinate shape. faster molecular motion Weaker binding than a solid. Slightly compressible
Gases - indefinite volume, compressible. indefinite shape, very fast molecular motion weak bonds
State the mass and charge of all subatomic particles
Proton - Positive Charge - 1.0078 AMU
Neutron - Neutral Charge - 1.0087 AMU
Electron - Negative Charge - 5.486 x 10^-4 AMU
Define Chemical and Physical changes and give examples
Chemical changes result in an identity change when a substance interacts with other matter
Physical change properties that can be determined without changing the identity of a substance
What determines how an atom behaves chemically
Define atomic weight
The weighted average of the masses of all of its naturally occurring isotopes
What is Avogadro's number Were does it come from
It comes from experimenting to find out how many atoms are in a mol.
1 mol is 6.022 x 10 23 atoms
1 mol of gas occupies 22.4L at Standard Temperature and Pressure
Avogadro's number represents the number of atoms in X grams of any element, where X is the atomic weight of the element
Define a pure substance
A pure substance can't be separated into something else by any physical or mechanical means
Pure Gold is an example
What are the similarities between members of a group?
On the periodic table each column is a group. The difference between each group is the number of valance electrons.
What is the molecular weight of NaH2PO4 (answer in gram/mol)
Sodium 1 atom x 22.98977 amu = 22.98977 amu
Hydrogen 2 atoms x 1.0079 amu = 2.0158 amu
Phosphorus 1 atom x 30.97376 amu = 30.97376 amu
Oxygen 4 atoms x 15.9994 amu = 63.9976 amu
Total 119.97693 amu or gram/mol
What is the molecular weight of Mg3(PO4)2 (Answer in g/mol)
Magnesium 3 atoms x 24.305 amu = 72.915 amu
Phosphorus 2 atoms x 30.97376 amu = 61.94752 amu
Oxygen 8 atoms x 15.9994 amu = 127.9952 amu
Total weight = 262.85772 amu or g/mol
Calculate the molecular mass in amu of CaCO3
Calcium 1 atom x 40.08 amu = 40.08 amu
Carbon 1 atom x 12.011 amu = 12.011 amu
Oxygen 3 atoms x 15.9994 amu = 47.9982 amu
Total Mass = 100.0892 amu