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2010-09-08 10:45:56
Chapter Principles

Chapter 1 Principles
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  1. Certain soluble salts, principally sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium, that have the property of combining with acids to form neutral salts
  2. An extremely small electrically-neutral particle
  3. The sum of the total number of protons, Z, and the total number of neutrons, N. The symbol is A.
    Atomic mass number.
  4. Number of protons in the nucleus
    Atomic number
  5. The weighted average of the masses of all of its natural occurring isotopes
    Atomic weight of an element
  6. Represents the number of atoms in X grams of any element, where X is the atomic weight of the element
    Avogadro’s number
  7. The systematic investigation of the properties, structure, and behavior of matter and the changes matter undergoes.
  8. A bond in which one or more electrons from an atom pair off with one or more electrons from another atom and form overlapping electron shells in which both atoms share the paired electrons
    Covalent bond
  9. Is the measure of the mass per unit volume of a material. density = mass/volume
  10. The mass of a mole of atoms.
    Gram atomic weight (GAW).
  11. The mass of a mole of molecules, (GMW).
    Gram molecular weight
  12. Atoms of the same element with different atomic mass numbers
  13. Two substances placed together in a container, in any ratio and the composition is not of fixed proportion
  14. The quantity of a pure substance that contains 6.022 × 1023 units (atoms, ions, molecules, or elephants) of that substance. In other words, a mole is Avogadro’s number of anything
  15. The total weight of the individual atoms of a molecule
    Molecular weight
  16. Groups or clusters of atoms held together by means of chemical bonding
  17. A concentration of a solution in units of one part of solute to one million parts solvent.
  18. A compound composed of positive and negative ions held together with an ionic bond
  19. Refers to the physical forms in which matter exists: solid, liquid, and gas.
    States of matter
  20. The maximum amount of a substance which will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature
  21. The substance that dissolves in a solution
  22. A homogeneous(uniformly distributed) mixture of two or more substances
  23. The material that dissolves the other substance(s) in a solution. It is the dissolving medium
  24. State the characteristics of all phases of matter
    • Solids - definate shape and volume. Slow molecular motion. Binding forces strong.
    • Liquids - Definite volume, indefinate shape. faster molecular motion Weaker binding than a solid. Slightly compressible
    • Gases - indefinite volume, compressible. indefinite shape, very fast molecular motion weak bonds
  25. State the mass and charge of all subatomic particles
    • Proton - Positive Charge - 1.0078 AMU
    • Neutron - Neutral Charge - 1.0087 AMU
    • Electron - Negative Charge - 5.486 x 10^-4 AMU
  26. Define Chemical and Physical changes and give examples
    • Chemical changes result in an identity change when a substance interacts with other matter
    • Physical change properties that can be determined without changing the identity of a substance
  27. What determines how an atom behaves chemically
    Valence electrons
  28. Define atomic weight
    The weighted average of the masses of all of its naturally occurring isotopes
  29. What is Avogadro's number Were does it come from
    • It comes from experimenting to find out how many atoms are in a mol.
    • 1 mol is 6.022 x 10 23 atoms
    • 1 mol of gas occupies 22.4L at Standard Temperature and Pressure
    • Avogadro's number represents the number of atoms in X grams of any element, where X is the atomic weight of the element
  30. Define a pure substance
    • A pure substance can't be separated into something else by any physical or mechanical means
    • Pure Gold is an example
  31. What are the similarities between members of a group?
    On the periodic table each column is a group. The difference between each group is the number of valance electrons.
  32. What is the molecular weight of NaH2PO4 (answer in gram/mol)
    • Sodium 1 atom x 22.98977 amu = 22.98977 amu
    • Hydrogen 2 atoms x 1.0079 amu = 2.0158 amu
    • Phosphorus 1 atom x 30.97376 amu = 30.97376 amu
    • Oxygen 4 atoms x 15.9994 amu = 63.9976 amu
    • Total 119.97693 amu or gram/mol
  33. What is the molecular weight of Mg3(PO4)2 (Answer in g/mol)
    • Magnesium 3 atoms x 24.305 amu = 72.915 amu
    • Phosphorus 2 atoms x 30.97376 amu = 61.94752 amu
    • Oxygen 8 atoms x 15.9994 amu = 127.9952 amu
    • Total weight = 262.85772 amu or g/mol
  34. Calculate the molecular mass in amu of CaCO3
    • Calcium 1 atom x 40.08 amu = 40.08 amu
    • Carbon 1 atom x 12.011 amu = 12.011 amu
    • Oxygen 3 atoms x 15.9994 amu = 47.9982 amu
    • Total Mass = 100.0892 amu