virology wk 8

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  1. poxvirus
    • HUGE ds DNA surrounded by core membrane, lateral bodies (containing replication enzymes) and surface membrane.  1 or 2 envelopes depending on viral load (lysis vs lysogenic).  Oval, brick shaped
    • used as vectors for vaccines or gene therapy
    • Immune evasion MASTERS
    • replicate in cytoplasm
    • species specific, some zoonotic
    • No persistence
    • local or systemic disease
  2. poxvirus replication
    • direct fusion
    • uncoating (one or two depending on envelopes)
    • Replicates IN CYTOPLASM, lateral bodies 
    • early, intermediate, late genes.  
    • High infection pressure = lysis, one envelope.  Low infection pressure = lysogenic cycle, double envelope (budding)
  3. Avipox: fowlpox
    • poxvirus (dsDNA, replicates in cytoplasm, enveloped)
    • common in backyard chx (not vaccinated)
    • cutaneous form - via biting insects and wound contamination, skin lesions, recovery
    • diphtheric form - infection via inhalation, diphtheric membranes in pharynx, trachea.  gasping, coughing, asphyxiation, often death
    • bollinger bodies in cytoplasm
  4. capripox: sheeppox
    • poxvirus, dsDNA, enveloped (brick), replicates in cytoplasm
    • MOST SEVERE of all animal poxviruses, REPORTABLE
    • infection via droplet, stable flies and fomites
    • Serious FATAL dz.
    • pain, swollen eyelids, mucopurulent d/c, skin lesions (erythematous become raised, dermal necrosis then scar), can develop in lungs (edema, necrosis, atelectasis)
  5. capripox: goatpox
    • poxvirus, dsDNA, enveloped (brick), replicates in cytoplasm
    • pain, swollen eyelids, mucopurulent d/c, skin lesions (erythematous become raised, dermal necrosis then scar), can develop in lungs (edema, necrosis, atelectasis)
  6. capripox: lumpy skin disease
    • poxvirus, dsDNA, enveloped (brick), replicates in cytoplasm
    • cattle and zebus
    • spread via biting insects and direct contact, epidemics vary with insect population
    • lacrimation, nasal d/c, hypersalivation, lumps on skin and mucosa, lymphadenopathy, edema
    • nodules contain creamy grey or yellow, could regress or ulcerate, necrose, scars
  7. Leporipox: myxoma virus
    • poxvirus, dsDNA, replicates in cytoplasm, envelope
    • spread via contact or biting insects
    • dz depending on breed - pet/European die (systemic), mild cutaneous fibroma in wild. 
    • primary infection, replicate in dermis and langerhans, infects T cells, spreads to lymph organs and skin
    • localized skin tumors vs large skin lesions, edema of head and genitals, conjunctivitis/blindness, death
    • myxoma cells - stellate cells with large nucleus, proliferative cells budding off into circulation
    • no tx
  8. Orthopox: cowpox
    • poxvirus, dsDNA, enveloped, replicates in cytoplasm
    • inspired first smallpox vaccine
    • zoonotic, in cats
    • cats get it from rodents (reservoir), single lesion to general skin rash, macules become vesicles, ulcerate, scabs.  Immunosuppressed die of pneumonia (and cheetahs)
    • cats give to humans, localized lesions, systemic ADR.
  9. Parapox: Orf
    • poxvirus, dsDNA enveloped, replicates in cytoplasm
    • = ecthyma contagiosum, ovine range fever, thistle disease, scabby mouth
    • lips of young sheep and goats
    • resistant in environment
    • zoonotic
    • spread via direct contact and fomites, papules and pustules on lips and muzzles of lambs, teats, feet and eyelids of ewes.
    • Heals without scarring
  10. Parapox: pseudocowpox
    • poxvirus, dsDNA enveloped replicates in cytoplasm
    • causes bovine papular stomatitis
    • unimportant medically, only because it looks like foot and mouth
    • zoonosis (farmyard pox)
  11. suipox: swinepox
    • poxvirus, dsDNA, enveloped, cytoplasmic replication
    • most common pox in pigs
    • transmitted by PIG LOUSE and contact, mostly in young
    • face, ear, leg, abdomen papules/pustules, turn into dark scabs (spotted piglets), heal without scarring
  12. picornavirus
    +RNA, non-enveloped, icosahedral
  13. foot and mouth disease
    • picornavirus, +RNA, non-enveloped
    • cloven-hoofed animals
    • very variable, evolves, no cross-protection, very stable virus
    • huge economic losses
    • transmission: resp aerosol, eating infected, mechanical, AI, contaminated biologicals like hormones
    • sheep and goats are maintenance host - mild signs, hard to diagnose.  Pigs are amplifiers - no persistance of virus but produce HUGE loads.  Cows are indicators, get all the clinical signs
    • excretion of virus pre-clinical signs, virus in ALL secretions of body
    • vesicles and erosions on mouth, nares, muzzle/snout, feat, teats; excessive salivation, lameness, myocarditis in piglets
  14. swine vesicular disease (SVD)
    • picornavirus, +RNA no envelope
    • signs like foot and mouth disease
    • very stable virus, lives in dried and cured meat
    • excreted pre clinical signs
    • reportable
  15. Enterovirus encephalomyelitis of pigs
    • picornavirus, +RNA no envelope
    • neuro disease of pigs
    • most are mild, diarrhea, pericarditis, occasional abortion.  Teschen disease is REPORTABLE and causes neuro
    • fecal-oral, endemic in most swine herds
  16. Teschen disease
    • nasty neuro form of enterovirus encephalomyelitis of pigs
    • Reportable
    • picornavirus, +RNA, no envelope
  17. Avian encephalomyelitis
    • Picornavirus, +RNA no envelope
    • "Epidemic Tremor"
    • neuro disease of young chickens, pheasants, quail, turkeys
    • orofecal and vertical transmission
    • drop in egg production, neuro in young chicks
    • vaccine
  18. Epidemic tremor
    • Picornavirus, +RNA no envelope
    • Avian encephalomyelitis
    • neuro disease of young chickens, pheasants, quail, turkeys
    • orofecal and vertical transmission
    • drop in egg production, neuro in young chicks
    • vaccine
  19. caliciviridae
    +RNA non-enveloped icosahedral
  20. Vesicular exanthema of swine (VESV)
    • calicivirus, +RNA no envelope
    • extinct
    • sea lion virus that caused foot and mouth symptoms in pigs
  21. Feline calicivirus
    • calici virus +RNA no envelope
    • major cause of resp (~40%), different strains have dif virulence, can be carriers
    • mild conjuntivitis, sneezing, rhinitis, nasal d/c, ulceration of tongue, palate, nasal philtrum, RARELY pneumonia
    • aerosol and fomite transmission, more in shelters/catteries and multi-cat households
    • Stable virus in humid environment
    • vax prevents disease but not infection
    • RARELY virulent systemic FCV: facial and limb edema, oral ulcers, nasal and ocular discharge, sores/ulceration, multi-organ dysfunction, sudden death
  22. rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus
    • calicivirus +RNA no envelope
    • VERY contagious, peracute hemorrhagic disease
    • only PET (european and New Zealand White) over 40 or 50 days are susceptible
    • Reportable in US
    • sudden death, sometimes neuro, resp, bloody nasal d/c.  VERY occasionally more chronic disease, jaundice, death in 1-2wks
    • VERY stable in environment
    • can't be grown in lab
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virology wk 8
2016-11-20 13:02:35

virology wk 8, pox, picorna calici
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