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Excretory systems control ______, ______ and ______ of the ______ fluid and excrete _____. Cell volume depends on water movement to or from ______ _____. Water movement depends on differences in _____ ______.
- volume, concentration and composition
- extracellular fluid
- solute concentrations
The osmolarity of a solution is the number of moles of active _____ per liter of _____. The osmolarity of the extracellular fluid must be maintained for _____ _____ balance.
- solute per liter of solvent
- cellular water balance
Excretory organs control ______ & ______ of extracellular fluids
osmolarity & volume
How do excretory organs control osmolarity and volume of extracellular fluids
- excreting excess solutes (NaCl)
- conserving rare or valuable solutes (glucose)
_____ is the output of the excretory system. Name the three processes excretory systems have in common
- Filtration—extracellular fluid is filtered to contain no cells or large molecules
- Secretion—modifies the filtrate
- Reabsorption—concentrates the urine
Animals in different environments have diff. excretory functions. The difference between terrestrial animals and freshwater animals is that terrestrial animals must conserve ____ & ____ while freshwater animals must conserve _____ and ____ ____ ____.
- salts and water
- conserve salts and excrete excess water
Animals must eliminate metabolic waste product. For instance, carbs and fats end as ____ & ____ and are easily _____. Proteins and nucleic acids contain ______ so metabolism produces ______ ______.
- water & CO2
- nitrogenous waste
Most species secrete more than one nitrogenous waste. Human are _____ meaning they primarily excrete _____. However, we also excrete _____ ____ and ______
- uric acid
Uric acid is from the metabolism of _____ ____ and _____. Ammonia regulates _____ of extracellular fluid by buffering ____.
- nucleic acids & caffeine
Vertebrates are well adapted to excrete excess water. The ______ is the main excretory organ and the nephron is the ____ _____ ____ of the _____. Nephrons filter large volumes of ____ and achieve bulk _______.
- main functional unit of the kidney
Ureters are _____ from the kidney that leads to the ______ _____. While the urethra is a tube for urine _______ leading from the urinary bladder where urine is _____ to the world
- urinary bladder
Urine formation in vertebrate nephrons involves what three processes
- tubular reabsorption
- tubular secretion
Blood is filtered in the _______, a ball of capillaries. ______ filtrate flows into the _______ tubule where it is modified by reabsorption of _____ _____, ______ and _____.
- glomerular filtrate
- renal tubule
- specific ions, nutrients and water
True or false... further modifications occur in the renal tubules
Blood enters the glomerulus through the _____ _____ and leaves through the ______ ______. The ______ _____ feeds the peritubular capillaries, which surround the tubule and serve as _____ _____
- afferent arteriole
- efferent arteriole
- efferent arteriole
- exchange sites
The renal tubule begins with ______ ______ which encloses the glomerulus. ______ are capsule cells that contact the glomerular capillaries and have fine processes that wrap around the capillaries like feet.
- bowman's capsule
What keeps the rate of filtration high in the glomerulus? (2)
- High capillary blood pressure
- High permeability of glomerular capillaries and their podocytes
_______ are membrane proteins abundant in highly water-permeable areas such as _____ ______ _____ and ______ ______ of ______. They are absent from _____ _____ of _____
- Proximal convoluted tubule
- descending loops of Henle
- ascending loops of Henle
The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is responsible for the _____ ______ of water and solutes. Basically keeps the osmolarity _______.
- isosmotic reabsorption
How does the PCT keep osmolarity constant? (3)
- PCT cells have microvilli to increase surface area, and have mitochondria
- They actively transport Na+, glucose, and amino acids
- Water follows the transport of solutes
Concentration of urine is due to a ________ _______ mechanism in the loops of Henle. Tubule fluid flows in opposite directions in the ______ & _____ _____
- countercurrent multiplier
- ascending & descending limbs
The loops increase _____ of interstitial fluid in a ______ way
Renal failure results in _____ & ______ retention (____ blood pressure), ______ retention (_____ poisoning), and ______ aka decreasing pH
- salt & water retention (hbp)
- urea retention
Dialysis treatment passes blood through membrane channels bathed in a ______-____ solution to remove ______.