Salt and Water Balance and Nitrogen

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  1. Excretory systems control ______, ______ and ______ of the ______ fluid and excrete _____. Cell volume depends on water movement to or from ______ _____. Water movement depends on differences in _____ ______.
    • volume, concentration and composition
    • extracellular 
    • waste
    • extracellular fluid 
    • solute concentrations
  2. The osmolarity of a solution is the number of moles of active _____ per liter of _____. The osmolarity of the extracellular fluid must be maintained for _____ _____ balance.
    • solute per liter of solvent
    • cellular water balance
  3. Excretory organs control ______ & ______ of extracellular fluids
    osmolarity & volume
  4. How do excretory organs control osmolarity and volume of extracellular fluids
    • excreting excess solutes (NaCl)
    • conserving rare or valuable solutes (glucose)
  5. _____ is the output of the excretory system. Name the three processes excretory systems have in common
    • Filtration—extracellular fluid is filtered to contain no cells or large molecules
    • Secretion—modifies the filtrate
    • Reabsorption—concentrates the urine
  6. Animals in different environments have diff. excretory functions. The difference between terrestrial animals and freshwater animals is that terrestrial animals must conserve ____ & ____ while freshwater animals must conserve _____ and ____ ____ ____.
    • salts and water
    • conserve salts and excrete excess water
  7. Animals must eliminate metabolic waste product. For instance, carbs and fats end as ____ & ____ and are easily _____. Proteins and nucleic acids contain ______ so metabolism produces ______ ______.
    • water & CO2
    • excreted
    • nitrogen 
    • nitrogenous waste
  8. Most species secrete more than one nitrogenous waste. Human are _____ meaning they primarily excrete _____. However, we also excrete _____ ____ and ______
    • Ureotelic
    • urea
    • uric acid
    • ammonia
  9. Uric acid is from the metabolism of _____ ____ and _____. Ammonia regulates _____ of extracellular fluid by buffering ____.
    • nucleic acids & caffeine
    • pH 
    • urine
  10. Vertebrates are well adapted to excrete excess water. The ______ is the main excretory organ and the nephron is the ____ _____ ____ of the _____. Nephrons filter large volumes of ____ and achieve bulk _______.
    • kidney
    • main functional unit of the kidney
    • blood
    • reabsorption
  11. Ureters are _____ from the kidney that leads to the ______ _____. While the urethra is a tube for urine _______ leading from the urinary bladder where urine is _____ to the world
    • ducts 
    • urinary bladder
    • excretion
    • stored
  12. Urine formation in vertebrate nephrons involves what three processes
    • filtration
    • tubular reabsorption 
    • tubular secretion
  13. Blood is filtered in the _______, a ball of capillaries. ______ filtrate flows into the _______ tubule where it is modified by reabsorption of _____ _____, ______ and _____.
    • glomerulus
    • glomerular filtrate
    • renal tubule
    • specific ions, nutrients and water
  14. True or false... further modifications occur in the renal tubules
    true
  15. Blood enters the glomerulus through the _____ _____ and leaves through the ______ ______. The ______ _____ feeds the peritubular capillaries, which surround the tubule and serve as _____ _____
    • afferent arteriole
    • efferent arteriole
    • efferent arteriole
    • exchange sites
  16. The renal tubule begins with ______ ______ which encloses the glomerulus. ______ are capsule cells that contact the glomerular capillaries and have fine processes that wrap around the capillaries like feet.
    • bowman's capsule
    • podocytes
  17. What keeps the rate of filtration high in the glomerulus? (2)
    • High capillary blood pressure
    • High permeability of glomerular capillaries and their podocytes
  18. _______ are membrane proteins abundant in highly water-permeable areas such as _____ ______ _____ and ______ ______ of ______. They are absent from _____ _____ of _____
    • Aquaporins
    • Proximal convoluted tubule
    • descending loops of Henle
    • ascending loops of Henle
  19. The proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is responsible for the _____ ______ of water and solutes. Basically keeps the osmolarity _______.
    • isosmotic reabsorption 
    • constant
  20. How does the PCT keep osmolarity constant? (3)
    • PCT cells have microvilli to increase surface area, and have mitochondria
    • They actively transport Na+, glucose, and amino acids
    • Water follows the transport of solutes
  21. Concentration of urine is due to a ________ _______ mechanism in the loops of Henle. Tubule fluid flows in opposite directions in the ______ & _____ _____
    • countercurrent multiplier
    • ascending & descending limbs
  22. The loops increase _____ of interstitial fluid in a ______ way
    • osmolarity 
    • graduated
  23. Renal failure results in _____ & ______ retention (____ blood pressure), ______ retention (_____ poisoning), and ______ aka decreasing pH
    • salt & water retention (hbp)
    • urea retention
    • acidosis
  24. Dialysis treatment passes blood through membrane channels bathed in a ______-____ solution to remove ______.
    • plasma-like
    • wastes

Card Set Information

Author:
chikeokjr
ID:
325851
Filename:
Salt and Water Balance and Nitrogen
Updated:
2016-11-21 04:05:05
Tags:
biology
Folders:
week 7
Description:
Slides
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