MicroCh22

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  1. Define central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  2. Define blood-brain barrier
    Subarachnoid space containing the CSF
  3. Why can the antibiotic chloramphenicol readily cross the blood-brain barrier wheareas most other antibiotics cant?
    It can cross because its lipid soluble
  4. Differentiate meningitis from encephalitis
    meningitis : inflammation of the meninges 

    encephalitis: inflammation of the brain
  5. Epidemiology of meningitis caused by Haemophilius influenzae
    Gram (-) aerobic bacteria: normal throat microbiota 

    Can enter the bloodstream 

    Pathogenicity due to the capsule antigen type b
  6. Epidemiology of meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitis
    Gram (-) cocci with a capsule

    begins as a throat infection, rash
  7. Epidemiology of streptococcus pneumoniae
    Gram + encapsulated diplococcus
  8. Epidemiology of listeria
    • Gram (-) aerobic rod
    • usually foodborne
    • Spreads phagocyte to phagocyte ( reproduces in phagocytes)
  9. How is bacterial meningitis diagnosed and treated
    Cephalasporin 

    Vaccines
  10. Blood fluid to test meningitis
    CSF?
  11. Epidemiology of tetanus

    - mode of transmission
    -etiology
    -disease symptom
    -prevention
    Gram + endospore forming 

    • Released from dead cells
    • Enters CNS, blocks relaxation pathway in muscles causing muscle spasms 

    Prevention DTaO vaccine ( TIG protein)
  12. Is the tetanus vaccine directed at the bacterium or the toxin produced ?
    toxin
  13. Botulism
    -cause
    -symptom
    -suspect food
    -treatment
    • Cause: Gram + endospore forming obligate 
    • - in kids associated with honey

    Ingesting the toxin ( blocks synaptic end of the nerve, releases Acetylocholine=paralyze) 

    treatment: respiratory assistant, proper canning
  14. Epidemiology of leprosy ( hansens disease)
    • Caused by mycobacterium leprae 
    • transmission required prolonged contact with an infected person / inhale secretions
    • Grows in PNS ( survives macrophages invades myelin sheath)
    • -- no senesation, disfigured nodules over body
    • treatment: antibiotics
  15. Why are nude mice and armadillos imporatnt in the study of leprosy?
    • leprosy must be cultured on live skin
    • normal microbiota for armadillos
  16. Poliomyelitis
    • poliovirus
    • -ingestion of water/feces with the virus
    • symptom: sore throat nausea
    • muscle weakness

    vaccine: salk ( inactivated, injectible)

    sabin: oral, life long immunity
  17. Rabies
    Rabies virus , 1 stranded RNA develops mutations 

    - animal bite saliva 

    sympt: muscle spasm of the mouth , hydrophobia 

    Causes encephalitis 

    Furious rabies: restless highly excitable

    Paralytic ( dumb) rabies: unaware of surroundings 

    diagnosed from body fluids with DFA test
  18. Post exposure PEP 
    Vs Pre exposure PEP

    for polio
    Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP): vaccine plus immune globulin 

    ( its only if the animal that bit a person is positive for rabies)
  19. How arborviral encephalitis can be prevented ?
    control local mosquito populations
  20. Compare salk and sabin polio vaccines
    why is sabin more effective
    • Salk 
    • - injectable
    • -inactive

    • Sabin
    • -oral
    • -live
    • -lifelong
    • ( resembles natural intestinal immunity more)
  21. Causeative agent
    reservoir
    symptoms
    treatement 
    for cyrptococcosis
    Soil fugus associated with pigeon, and chiken droppings 

    transmitted by the respiratory route, spreads through blood --> CNS

    treatment: amphotericin B and flucytosine
  22. Causative agent 
    reservoir 
    symptoms 
    treatment for 
    African typanosomiasis
    Vector: tstese fly  humans = only reservoir 

    fever, headache, CNS deteriorates 

    treatment: eflornithe ( blocks enzyme)
  23. Amebic meningoencephalitis
    causes: PAM 

    protoza infects nasal mucosa from swimming in water, feeds on the brain 

    100% fatal
  24. Characteristics of diseases caused by prions
    prion: abnormally folded protein 

    - transmissable spongiform encephalopathies ( TSE)

    ex. mad cow disease 

    injested, hard to get ride of
  25. Recommendations for sterilizing reusable surgical instruments when prion contamination might be a factor?
    NaOH, autoclaving
  26. 1 common disease that may be associated with chronic fatigue syndrome
    Myalgic encephalomyelitis ( ME)

Card Set Information

Author:
skoops
ID:
325919
Filename:
MicroCh22
Updated:
2016-11-21 14:46:17
Tags:
microbiology
Folders:
microbiology
Description:
Microbial diseases of the nervous system
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