Prenatal Development

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Author:
jackiedh
ID:
32608
Filename:
Prenatal Development
Updated:
2010-09-04 13:00:56
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Chapeter
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Description:
Embryology
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  1. FERTILIZATION
    sperm + egg = zygote
  2. MITOSIS
    cell division of the zygote (which then = blastocyst)
  3. BLASTOCYST (and what it does)
    the collection of cells after zygote division

    migrates from the fallopian tubes to the uterus
  4. IMPLANTATION and what can happen
    blastocyst becomes embedded in the endometrium (uterine wall) and continues to divide

    Ectopic Pregnancy can occur if the blastocyst implants anywhere (fallopian tube) BUT the uterus
  5. 2 DISTINCT LAYERS OF A BLASTOCYST
    (what they become)
    • TROPHOBLAST LAYER: outside cells that will eventually become the prenatal support tissues
    • (ie: placenta and umbilical cord circulation)

    EMBRYOBLAST LAYER: inner cells that will become the embryo
  6. WHEN IS THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD?
    second to eighth week
  7. INDUCTION
    unknown; "lets get started" (pow wow)
  8. PROLIFERATION
    • controlled levels of cellular growth (uncontrolled = cancer)
    • Interstitial and Appositional
  9. INTERSTITIAL
    growth from within (blowing up a balloon) cells filled from the inside to outside
  10. APPOSITIONAL
    • growing by layers (paper mache).
    • grows from the outside
  11. DIFFERENTIATION
    (name the three)
    • when cells start to be structurally and functionally different and become tissues
    • Cytodifferentiation
    • Histodifferentiation
    • Morphodifferentiation
  12. CYTODIFFERENTIATION
    • development of different cells (cyto=cell)
    • i.e. heart and muscle
  13. HISTODIFFERENTIATION
    • development of different tissues in a structure i.e. valve, pump (heart)
    • (histo=tissue)
  14. MORPHOGENESIS (differentiation)
    the tissues start to become structures (morpho=structures)
  15. MATURATION (differentiation)
    • growing up in form, function, and size
    • if this goes wrong = miscarriage
  16. BILAMINAR EMBRYONIC DISC
    • forms in the second week it is the two layer epiblast (top) and hypoblast (lower) meeting point of two fluid filled cavities
    • Amniotic Cavity
    • Yolk Sac
  17. AMNIOTIC CAVITY
    faces the epiblast layer
  18. YOLK SAC
    faces the hypoblast layer and serves as the initial nourishment for the embryonic disc
  19. PLACENTA
    • forms from the trophoblast layer and the endometrium. This and the developing umbilical circulation system permit selective exchange of soluble bloodborne substances between the woman and the embryo.
    • Syphillis
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Tetracycline
  20. SYPHILLIS
    • std can cross through BV's to baby.
    • Hutchinsons Incisors
    • Mullberry Molars Occur
  21. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME
    causes learning disabilities
  22. TETRACYCLINE
    • Staining intrinsic and never goes away
    • Teteracycline binds to the dentin.
    • The lines on the teeth determine when the mother was taking tetracycline during pregnancy
  23. PRIMITIVE STREAK
    • forms in week three
    • A thickening of cells that splits the disc in half. The right and left sides will be symmetrical.
    • (bum)
  24. MESENCHYME
    • formed when some migratory cells from the epiblast layer move towards the hypoblast layer and they get caught in the middle.
    • this new layer = Trilaminar Embryonic Disc leading to new names for all the layers.
  25. ECTODERM
    • Came from epiblast (pink playdoh)
    • Epidermis
    • Sensory epithelium of the eyes, ears, and nose (senses)
    • Nervous System
    • Neural Crest Cells
    • *Ectodermal displasia can occur
  26. MESODERM
    the mesenchyme-or layer that tried to migrate and got stuck between the layers. (middle-green)
  27. TRILAMINAR EMBRYONIC DISC
    • Ectoderm "outside" pink
    • Mesoderm "middle" green
    • Hypoblast layer "inside" orange
  28. MESODERM GIVES RISE TO:
    • Dermis
    • Connective Tissue
    • Muscle
    • Bone
    • Lymphatics
    • Blood Cells
    • Bone Marrow
    • Cartilage
    • Reproductive Organs
    • Excretory Organs
  29. ECTODERM GIVES RISE TO
    • Epidermis
    • Sensory Epithelium of the eyes, ears, and nose (senses)
    • Nervous System
    • Neural Crest Cells
  30. ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA
    • abnormal development of the ectoderm. NOT meso or endo
    • Affects:
    • Teeth
    • Skin
    • Hair
    • Nails
    • Facial Structure
    • Glands
    • (hereditary)
  31. DISC STARTS TO LOOK LIKE THE SOLE OF A SHOE = PINK/GREEN/ORANGE
    • Cephalic end
    • Caudal end
    • both part of the digestive tract
    • ONLY ecto and endo. NO meso
  32. CEPHALIC END
    • head end
    • the wide part of the shoe
    • oropharyngeal (mouth) membrane formed here
    • primitive mouth and beginning of the digestive tract
  33. CAUDAL END
    • tail end
    • the narrow part of the shoe
    • the cloacal membrane (anus) formed here
    • anus and terminal end of the digestive tract
  34. ENDODERM
    • "orange playdoh"
    • Hypoblast layer
    • gives rise to the inside
    • 1) respiratory system linings
    • 2) digestive system linings
    • 3) liver cells
    • 4) pancreatic cells
  35. CNS DEVELOPS
    • Neurectoderm
    • Neural Plate
    • Neural Groove
    • Neural Fold
    • Neural Tube
  36. NEUROECTODERM
    • differentiates from the ectoderm
    • streak deepens and goes down to the cloacal membrane
  37. NEURAL PLATE
    • where all the neuroectoderm hang out.
    • a band of cells that extends the length of the embryo from the cephalic to caudal end.
  38. NEURAL GROOVE
    NEURAL FOLD
    NEURAL TUBE
    • when the plate thickens with cells and deepens into the embryo
    • it then sinks deeper to neural folds and eventually to a neural tube
    • this tube fuses and become the spinal cord
  39. SPINA BIFIDA
    • when the tube doesn't form completely
    • cord and fluid bubble out and sometimes paralyzes the child

    folic acid (vit b9 helps with fusion) is the prenatal vitamin that can prevent spina bifida, cleft palate and cleft lip
  40. NEURAL CREST CELLS
    • develop form the neuroectoderm
    • give rise to:
    • 1) connective tissue
    • 2) cartilage
    • 3) bone
    • 4) dental tissues
  41. SOMITES
    • 38 paired blocks of mesoderm along both sides of the neural tube
    • gives rise to skin and bones of the neck and trunk
  42. EMBRYONIC PERIOD WK 4
    • folding occurs
    • might know you are pregnant
  43. EMBRYONIC FOLDING
    • the disc starts to fold-establishing the human axis and placing the tissues in their proper positions for further development
    • 1) endoderm is at the core
    • 2) ectoderm is on the outside
    • 3) mesoderm is in the middle
  44. WHAT DOES FOLDING FORM?
    • one hollow tube that will be the digestive tract
    • 1) foregut
    • 2) midgut
    • 3) hindgut
  45. FOREGUT
    • anterior section of the tube
    • forms the throat
  46. MIDGUT
    • middle section of the tube
    • forms the rest of the digestive tract
  47. HINDGUT
    • posterior section of the tube
    • forms the rest of the digestive tract
  48. THE OTHER STRUCTURES THAT BEGIN TO DEVELOP DURING EMBRYONIC FOLDING ARE: (3)
    • face
    • neck
    • oral structures
  49. FETAL PERIOD
    • Third to Ninth month
    • time of maturation
    • allows newly formed tissues and organs to function
  50. EMBRYO ENLARGES AND BECOMES A FETUS
    • fourth month
    • detect heartbeat and fetal movements

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