207 - Nutrition in childhood

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user K.A on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. what is the challenge in childhood nutrition?
    • To provide energy and nutrients for:
    • maintenance needs
    • proper growth and development
    • long term health

    • To establish healthy eating and activity habits
    • To develop a healthy body image
  2. how does weight gain work for a baby?
    • A baby x2 its weight in 5months 
    •            x3 in a year
  3. how to transition diet in childhood according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)?
    • Adapt a low ↓ fat diet from age 2-3
    • Expect to decrease CVD as adults
  4. how to transition diet in childhood according to the according to the Canadian Paediatric Society (CPS)?
    • childhood is transition
    • Priority is G and D, and healthy eating pattern for the whole family
  5. what is the composition of breast milk?
    • 55% FAT
    • 39% CARBOHYDRATES
    • 6% PROTEIN
  6. what is the recommended adult diet?
    • 58% CARBOHYDRATES
    • 30% FAT
    • 12% PROTEIN
  7. how many children are overweight or obese in canada?
    • 31% of children in Canada
    • Childhood obesity --> adult obesity
  8. what is the recommended treatment for obesity?
    • Grow into weight
    • Less aggressive
    • More positive approach
  9. what is the BMI percentile for at risk of overweight?
    85-95%
  10. what is the BMI percentile for overweight?
    95%
  11. what does a medical assessment of Overweight Adolescent include?
    • Personal and Family history: BMI changes 
    • Social/Psychological history: Including tobacco use, depression, family dysfunction, eating disorders
    • Physical Exam: Anthropometrics, waist circumference, skin folds, blood pressure
    • Laboratory tests: Fasting glucose, cholesterol, liver enzymes
  12. what are the goal of therapy?
    • Primary goalBehavioural change
    • Secondary goal = Weight maintenance (after a change in behaviour occurs)
    • Resolve/ Improve medical complications
  13. what is the appropriate goal in weight maintenance/loss?
    • BMI < 85th percentile
    • 1st maintain baseline wight (grow into weight)
    • Rate of weight loss = 1lb/month
    • Maintenance after achieving BMI is important
  14. what are some recommendations for children?
    • Min 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity: play time, physical activity (sports, activities)
    • Mostly aerobic: Vigorous at least 3 days a week
    • Muscle/bone strengthening: 3 days / week
  15. how to decrease energy intake?
    • Variety and moderation: No counting calories, drink water (or skim milk), eat nutrient dense not energy dense, refer to Food Guide
    • Involve the family: meals/goal planning/reinforcement
    • Strategies how to handle eating out of home
  16. what are some complications of weight management programs?
    • Too severe restriction of calories: lean body mass may be lost and linear growth may slow
    • Preoccupation with weight may translate to self esteem issues
    • Conflicts between fam and kid = go to therapist
  17. what are some additional treatment options for high risk morbid obesity?
    • 1. Bariatric surgery
    • BMI > 40 
    • Behavioural commitment necessary for long term success

    • 2. Pharmacotherapy
    • Trials underway but currently not approved for paediatric use (<16yrs)
    • Behavioural commitment necessary
  18. what are some long term prevention methods in larger patient populations?
    • Breastfeeding promotion
    • Parent/child dynamics: "Parents to provide, a child to decide" approach
    • Limit TV time
  19. what are some child mortality stats?
    • 6,900,000 = number of children under age 5 who died worldwide in 2011
    • Number of deaths = declined from nearly 12 million in 1990
    • 19,00 children die every day
  20. what are the causes of death in children?
    • Neonatal
    • Pneumonia
    • Diarrhea
    • Malaria
    • Measles
    • HIV/AIDS
    • Injuries
  21. what is acute Protein Energy Undernutrition (PEU)?
    • Short term 
    • Wasting
    • Low weight for height
  22. what is chronic Protein Energy Undernutrition (PEU)?
    • Long term
    • Stunting
    • Low weight + height for age
  23. how do we classify Protein Energy Undernutrition?
    • Primary
    • Secondary
  24. what is primary PEU?
    • Malnutrition due to inadequate intake
    • Poverty
    • Low food supple
    • Poor quality of food

    • Reasons?? 
    • Armed conflicts
    • Political disturbance
    • Natural disasters
  25. what is secondary PEU?
    • Malnutrition due to a disease state
    • More common in Canada
    • Decreased ↘ intake
    • Decreased ↘ absorption/utilization (due to changes in GI tract)
    • Increased ↗ losses 
    • Increased ↗ requirement
  26. what is Marasmus?
    • "Succesful" adaptation to PEM
    • Infancy < 2 years
    • Severe deprivation or impaired absorption of proteins, energy, vitamins and minerals
    • Develops slowly
    • Severe weight loss and muscle wasting, including the heart
    • < 60% weight for age
    • Anxiety and Apathy
    • Good appetite is possible
    • Skin and bones appearance
  27. what is Kwashiorkor?
    • "Unsuccessful" adaptation to PEM
    • 1-3 years old (weaning period vulnerable)
    • Inadequate protein intake or infection
    • Rapid onset
    • Some muscle wasting, some fat retention
    • 60-80% weight for age
    • Edema and fatty liver
    • Loss of appetite
  28. what is edema?
    • Plasma proteins leave leaky blood vessels and move into tissues
    • Proteins attract water (small proteins like albumin), causing swelling
    • When pressure is applied to the swelling tissues, it leaves an indentation
    • Adults with heart proteins: swelling of ankles
  29. what are the long term consequences of PEM?
    • Decreased:
    • Development (physical, social, cognitive)
    • Adult productivity
    • Reproduction
    • Potential of the society as a whole
  30. what are the differences between successful and unsuccessful adaptation?
    • Successful Adaptation
    • Ex. Marasmus
    • Integrated metabolic response to a change in environment conditions
    • Maintains steady state within preferred range
    • Fully reversible
    • No loss in overall function

    • Unsuccessful adaptation (Accommodation)
    • Ex. Kwashiorkor
    • More severe metabolic adjustment
    • Changes are outside " preferred range"
    • May not be reversible
    • Loss of physiological function
  31. what are some infection found in PEM?
    • Lack of antibodies
    • Hb no longer synthesized - anemia
    • Dysentery - Infection of the GI tract
    • Fever
    • Fluid imbalances (edema) - Heart failure, possible death
  32. how does rehabilitation work for PEM?
    • Restore fluid and electrolyte imbalances
    • Nutrition intervention must be cautious, slowly increasing protein
    • Treat infections
    • Programs should involve the local people
  33. what are some infection common with PEU?
    • Diarrhea
    • Pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections
    • Urinary Tract infections
    • Measles
    • Tuberculosis
    • Parasitic infections
    • Also parasitic infections are associated with Fe and Vitamin A deficiencies
  34. what is cholera?
    • Bacterial infection of the small intestine producing toxin
    • Vomiting, Diarrhea, Electrolyte imbalance, dehydration
    • 3-5 million people per year
    • 100,000-13,000 deaths per year
  35. what are the consequences of PEM?
    • Decreased:
    • Development (physical, social, cognitive)
    • Adult productivity
    • Reproduction
    • Potential of the society as a whole
  36. what is the double burden of malnutrition?
    • Undernutrition:
    • ↑ risk of childhood mortality
    • Childhood PEU (plus iron, Vitamin A and iodine)
    • Malnutrition is 34% of health care burden

    • Over nutrition:
    • ↑ risk of chronic disease
    • 11% prevalence of obesity/overweight and growing
    • Worlds largest % of Type 2 DM

Card Set Information

Author:
K.A
ID:
326089
Filename:
207 - Nutrition in childhood
Updated:
2016-11-28 21:16:07
Tags:
nutr
Folders:
nutr
Description:
nutr
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview