207 - alcohol, water and electrolytes

Home > Preview

The flashcards below were created by user K.A on FreezingBlue Flashcards.


  1. what are the alcohol recommendations?
    • Males - max. 1-2 drinks/day
    • Females - max. 1 drink/day
    • Max 4 on any occasion with food
    • Avoid if pregnant
  2. what is 1 drink?
    • 1 drink = 1/2 oz pure ethanol
    • 5 oz wine
    • 12 oz beer
    • 10oz wine cooler
    • 1 1/2 oz liquor (80 proof whiskey, gin, brandy, rum, vodka)
  3. who is alcohol converted to acetyl CoA?
  4. what is CoA?
    • Co enzyme A
    •  Essential in the diet
    • Vitamin B
    • Using NAD (niacin) and generating acid (H+ ions)
  5. whole alcohol cycle
  6. what happens with high alchol consumption?
  7. what are the metabolic effects?
    • Less NAD+ - pyruvate produces lactate rather than acetyl cos
    • More H+ - acidosis along with lactate
    • Acetyl CoA produced produces fatty acids and ketones rather than entering TCA cycle - fatty liver 
    • With decreased gluconeogenesis -- ketosis
    • Decreased protein synthesis
    • Both cause liver damage: fibrosis then cirrhosis
  8. what is the link between alcohol and malnutrition?
    • Empty calories
    • ↓ nutrient inatke

    • Compromises vitamin status
    • * Wernicke-Kprsakoff syndrome - thiamin destruction
    • *Anemia - due to folate excretion
    • *Decreased ↘ vitamin D activation in liver
    • *B6 loss from binding protein

    • Causes dehydration
    • Increases Fatty Acid synthesis, AA catabolism
    • Decreases Protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis
  9. what is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)?
    • Incidence 1 and 9 per 1000 live births
    • Alcohol crosses the placenta freely and is directly toxic

    • Drinking alcohol during pregnancy threatens the fetus with:
    • *Irreversible brain damage
    • *Growth restriction
    • *Cognitive impairment
    • *Facial abnormalities
    • *Vision abnormalities
  10. how does FAS damage occur?
    • Direct - intoxication, teratogenic effects
    • Indirect - Malnutrition
  11. what is the french paradox?
    France = ↓ CVD despite ↑ saturated fat intake

    • Red wine consumption = very unclear
    • alcohol or flavanoids or combination of both
    • Resveratol protects against LDL oxidation
    • Alcohol has ↑ HDL
  12. what are the risks associated with alcohol consumption?
    • hypertension
    • stroke
    • cirrhosis
    • cancer - oral, stomach, colon, breast, prostate
    • ulcers
    • osteoporosis
    • FAS
    • insomnia
    • drunk driving
    • Alcoholism
  13. what is cirrhosis?
    • Irreversible liver damamge casused by alcohol, hepatitis B or C, due to iron toxicity (hemochromatosis)
    • As liver constantly repairs, accumulation of fibrosis tissue, scars and nodules and connective tissue - impaired function
    • Fatty accumulation = causes steatosis
    • Inflammation - hepatitis 
    • Cirrosis is IRREVERSIBLE
  14. what does cirrhosis lead to?
    Carcinoma
  15. what are the functions of water?
    • Nutrient absorption and transport
    • Biochemical reactions
    • Solvent
    • Lubricant
    • Shock absorber
    • Temperature regulation 
    • Excretion of wastes
  16. what are the functions of electrolytes?
    • Fluid compartments and balance
    • Acid/base balance
    • Muscle contractions
    • Conduction of nerve impulses
  17. what are the recommended water intakes?
    • Average: 1-1.5ml/kcal/energy expenditure
    • Women: 2.7L
    • Men: 3.7L
  18. who needs increased water intakes?
    • Preganant and lactating women
    • Diarrhea and vomiting
    • Fever, heavy exercise
    • Elderly, air travel
    • Hot environment
  19. how much is our daily water intake?
    • - 2500ml
    • Liquid: 1200 ml
    • Food: 1000 ml
    • Metabolic: 300ml
  20. how much is our daily water output?
    • -2500ml
    • Kidneys: 1200ml* (obligatory urine excretion is 500ml)
    • Skin: 800ml
    • Lungs: 350ml
    • Feces: 150ml
  21. what minerals are in charge of electrolyte balance?
    Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K)
  22. what is sodium?
    • An extracellular cation
    • Helps with blood volume regulation
    • Na K ATPase
  23. what is potassium?
    • An intracellular cation
    • High blood concentration (cardiac arrest)
    • ****dnbdjks
  24. how is fluid and electrolyte balance regulated in the body?
    • GI tract: 10L/day ( secretion and reabsorption)
    • Kidneys: Hormone regulate water and sodium excretion
  25. how can fluid and electrolyte balance be disturbed in the body?
    • By losses
    • Sweating, bleeding, GI loss (vomitting, diarrhea)
    • Diabetes - lose water and glucose

    Replacement - oral rehydration therapy
  26. what is the upper limit of normal blood pressure?
    120/80 (systolic/diastolic)
  27. how does blood filtration work in the nephron?
    • 1. Blood flows into the glomerulus and some fluid with dissolved substances is absorbed into the tubule
    • 2. Fluid and substances that are needed by the body return to the blood vessels that are along side the tubules
    • 3. The tubules passes the waste materials to the bladder
  28. how do the kidneys respond to low blood flow?
    adsdjskanckdsnvkndfks
    • 1. Kidneys respond to low blood flow by releasing the enzyme RENIN to activate angiotensinigen
    • 2. Angiotensinigen is converted to angiotensin
    • 3. Angiotensin will signal the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone
    • 4. Angiotensin will cause the blood vessels to constrict and thus raising pressure
    • ** Aldosterone and ADH signal the kidneys to keep the sodium and water thus increasing ↑ the blood volume
  29. what are the recommended electrolyte intakes?
    • Sodium
    • AI: 1500mg/day
    • UL: 2300mg/day

    90% of men and 60% of women consume more than the UL

    • Potassium
    • AI: 4700mg/day
    • UL: none

    Most people consume less than 50% of the RDA
  30. what is DASH?
    Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  31. what are the DASH recommendations?
    • Consume a significant V and F intake
    • Provide 30% of its calories from fat (nuts, fish, whole grains, low fat dairy products)
    • Emphasizes vegetarian protein sources
    • Restricts sodium together with an increase in potassium
  32. what did the DASH studies show?
    • DASH diet = greater reduction in BP
    • Reducing Na reduces BP
  33. what doe the DASH diet provide more than the american diet?
    • More:
    • Fiber
    • Potassium (↑ K)
    • Magnesium (↑ Mg)
    • Calcium (↑ Ca)

    • Less:
    • Red meat
    • Sweet foods and beverages
  34. what are the benefits of a DASH diet?
    • Helps lower BP
    • Helps lower cholesterol and LDL cholesterol
    • Helps prevent/reduces hypertension when combined with a  low sodium diet

Card Set Information

Author:
K.A
ID:
326097
Filename:
207 - alcohol, water and electrolytes
Updated:
2016-11-30 06:50:59
Tags:
nutr
Folders:
nutr
Description:
nutr
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview