anatomy lecture

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anatomy lecture
2010-09-03 17:47:15
chemical organization

chapter 1 anp
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  1. homeostasis
    ability of the body to maintain equilibrium
  2. negative feedback
    • continuous feedback:
    • self-corrective mechanism
  3. positive feedback
    • discontinuous feedback
    • self-amplifying cycle
    • can be harmful/ life threatening
  4. examples of positive feedback
    • fever
    • expulsion of allergens (sneezing/coughing)
    • birthing
    • blood clot formation
  5. synergy
    • interaction of opposing (antagonistic) responses
    • key to negative feedback
  6. energy
    anything that allows work to happen
  7. kinetic energy
    energy of motion, energy that is actually doing work
  8. potential energy
    • energy that is contained in an object because of position or internal state
    • not doing work at the time.
  9. endergonic
    • endothermic
    • requires energy
  10. exergonic
    • exothermic
    • produces energy
  11. matter
    anything that has mass and occupies space
  12. atomic number
    number of protons in nucleus
  13. atomic mass
    number of protons and neutrons
  14. neutron number
    atomic mass minus atomic number
  15. oxidation
    • loss of one or more electrons
    • forms a cation (positively charged atom)
  16. reduction
    • gaining of one or more elections
    • produces an anion (negatively charged atom)
  17. ionic bonding
    transfer of one or more electrons
  18. covalent
    sharing of one or more electrons
  19. polar
    unequal sharing of electrons
  20. nonpolar
    equal sharing of electons between atoms

    • 1. single non-polar: two atoms of same atomic number share a single pair of electrons
    • 2. double non-polar: when two atoms of same atomic number share at least two pairs of electrons
    • 3. triple non-polar: two atoms of same atomic number, share at least three pars of electrons
  21. hydrogen bods
    • when hydrogen atom acts as a link between two other atoms
    • weak bridge
  22. di-sulfide bond
    • link formed by the association of 2 sulfure atoms found to separate amino acids
    • usually strong
  23. electrolytes
    soluable inorganic compunds whose ions may conduct an electric current in a solution or along a membrane
  24. types of electrolytes
    • hydrophilic
    • hydrophobic
  25. hydrophilic
    water loving molecules that will dissolve in water
  26. hydrophobic
    water fearing molecules that do not dissolve in water
  27. solutions
    complex of a solvent and one or more solute
  28. solvent
    fluid medium - usually water
  29. solute
    • dissolved substance in the solvent
    • sugar, salt, proteins
  30. ionization
    dissociation of a molecule (water) ina ssolution to form ions (H+) and [OH-]
  31. acidic substances
    when dissolved in asolution, increase the hydronium (H+) ion, or that decrease hydroxyl ([OH-]) concnetration in the solution
  32. basic (alkaline) substances
    when dissolved ina solution, increase the hydroxyl [OH-] ion, or decrease the hydronium (H+) ion
  33. neutral substance
    equal ratio of [H+] and [OH-]
  34. hydrocarbons
    • basic substrate of most biologically active molecules
    • alkenes, alkynes
  35. carbohydrates
    primary used to produce cellular energy in teh form of ATP, can aslo be used to form fats, proteins, nucleic acids
  36. isomers
    molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural configuration
  37. anabolism
    • dehydration syntheses (condensation)
    • linking molecules (build up) by removing water forming chemical bod
  38. glycosidic bond
    anabolism used to linke two hexose (monomers) molecules
  39. catabolism
    • hydrolysis (hydration)
    • breakdown of multiple units into individual building blocks by introducing water to split molecules apart
  40. disaccharides
    two hexose sugars linked together by glycosidic bond
  41. polysaccharides
    many sugars

    • types:
    • glycogen, starches, cellulose, chitin, oligosaccharides
  42. glyocgen
    polymer of many glucose molecules (animal starch)
  43. starches
    • similar to glycogen but produced by plants
    • digestible by humans
  44. cellulose
    • fiber similar to glycogen but produced by plants
    • not digestible by humans due to lack of enzyme cellulase
  45. chitin
    found in fungi and int he exoskeletons of all arthropods
  46. oligosaccharides
    • brnached polysaccharide
    • cell membrane antigens
  47. lipids
    • fats
    • essential as source of energy reserves, insulation of neurons
  48. proteins
    support, movement, transport, acid/base buffering, defense mechanism, metabolic regulation, coordination, controls trait expressions

    polymers of amino acids linked together by many peptide bods and are most abundant organic compound in the body
  49. amino acids
    protein sub-units

    • hydrocarbon group
    • carboxylic acid group (COOH-)
    • anime group (NH3)
  50. protein configurations
    • primary structure
    • secondary structure
    • tertiary structure
    • quaternary structure
  51. primary structure
    • straight polypeptide chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bods
    • formed as a result of dehydration synthesis reaction at the amine group side and carboxylic acid group side
  52. secondary structure
    • reconfiguration of a primary structure in which hydrogen bonds alter the shape of the polypeptide chain into
    • alpha helix: long twisted coil of molecules (collagen, alpha chains of hemoglobin)
    • beta pleated sheats: fibrous configuration that appears pleated (silk and beta chains of hemoglobin)
  53. tertiary structure
    • irregular contortions from bonding between side chains (rgroups) or varius amino acides
    • hydrophobic interaction
    • disulfide bridge
    • van der waals interactions
  54. hydrophobic interaction
    weak chemical bond formed when molecules taht do not mix with water, coalesce to exclude the water
  55. disulfide bridge
    strong covalent bonds that form between two cysteine monomers, amino acids, with sulfahydryl groups on their side chains
  56. van der waals interactions
    weak attrction between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations and ionic bonds
  57. quaternary structure
    • develops when separate polypeptide subunits (two or more tertiary configuration) interact to form a larger molecule
    • fibrous proteins: collagen, sik, actin, elastin
    • globular proteins: hemoglobin, immunoglobulins
  58. nucleic acids
    complex polymer of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis resulting in the formation of phosphodiester bonds linking the pentose sugar of one nucleotide to the pentose sugar of other molecule
  59. nucleotides basic components
    • sugar: either deoxyribose or ribose (pentose)
    • phosphate
    • nitrogenous base: adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), cystosine (C)

    [thymine(T) in DNA, uracil (U) in RNA]
  60. nitrogenous bases two configurations
    • pyrimidine: 6ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms: cytosine, thymine, uracil
    • purine: 6ring of carbon and nitrogen fused to 5ring: adenine, guanine