Poli 110 - Into to Canadian Politics - Ch. 5 - 6

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  1. Executive
    The branch of government responsible for the execution of policy
  2. Responsible government
    The Canadian system of government inherited from Great Britain in which ministers are responsible to Parliament and the crown
  3. Head of State
    The official representatives of the nation that is vested with all executive authority. In Canada the Queen is this person.
  4. Crown
    Refers to the entirety of the Canadian state. For example, property owned by the Government of Canada is crown property and government owned businesses are called Crown corporations.
  5. Governor General
    The Queen's representative in Canada, and formerly the head of the executive branch of government.
  6. Lieutenant governors
    The Queen's representative in each province.
  7. Queen's Privy Council for Canada
    A largely ceremonial body advises the Queen on matters of state related to Canada. It is made up of current and former cabinet ministers and other prominent Canadians. Individuals are appointed to the council by the governor-general on the advice of the Prime Minister. It is a lifetime appointment, but only current members of the cabinet are entitled to advise the crown directly.
  8. Cabinet
    The central decision-making body in the Canadian political system. It is led by the Prime Minister and includes the other ministers of
  9. Prime Minister
    The leader of the government in Parliament. By convention the Prime Minister is an elected member of the House of Commons.
  10. Head of government
    The official elected leader of the government. In Canada this person is the prime minister
  11. Ministers
    Members of Parliament usually in the House of Commons who have been appointed by the Prime Minister to sit with him or her in the cabinet. They collectively compose the Government of Canada
  12. Ministry
    Refers to the Government of Canada, which is composed of Ministers.
  13. Political executive
    The Prime Minister and The ministers (in Canada)
  14. Formal executive
    The crown (in Canada)
  15. Conventions
    Unwritten rules of the Canadian political system. Many were inherited from Great Britain's system of responsible government in 1867, others have emerged in Canada over time through political practice.
  16. Letters patent
    A specific set of instructions from the British Crown to the Governor General
  17. Prerogative powers
    The powers of the governor-general that have been reserved from the time when the monarch exercised absolute authority in the British political system.
  18. Speech from the throne
    Speech that opens each session of Parliament. The speech is written by the government but read in the Senate chamber by the governor-general. It outlines the government agenda for the new session of Parliament.
  19. Coalition government
    A government made up of two or more political parties
  20. Prorogation
    A temporary closing of Parliament between elections. It marks the end of one session of Parliament and gives the government the opportunity to plan for the next session.
  21. Orders in Council
    Decisions made by the Cabinet the carry legal force
  22. Governor in Council
    The formal decisions of the governor-general taken on the advice of cabinet
  23. Government
    May refer broadly to the entire system of public administration that governs the country or more specifically to the governing party in parliament.
  24. Ministers of state or secretaries of state
    Members of Parliament appointed by the Prime Minister to be a junior minister responsible for a particular department or agency under the auspices of the minister.
  25. Parliamentary secretaries
    Members of Parliament appointed by the Prime Minister to assist ministers in their parliamentary duties, such as answering questions when he is away.
  26. By election
    An election to fill a vacancy in the House of Commons held between general elections.
  27. Regional ministers
    Members of cabinet tasked by the Prime Minister to take the lead on issues related to a particular province for region. It is more of a partisan role the government position.
  28. Big tent parties
    diverse parties with multiple ideological factions
  29. Civil servant
    Permanent employees of the government to assist the elected government with policy development and implementation as well as the administration of the state
  30. Deputy minister
    The top civil servant in a department. This person is an employee of the government rather than an elected member of parliament.
  31. Briefing notes
    Short documents prepared by the civil service to inform ministers of key developments or to advise them on policy
  32. Memorandum to cabinet
    A formal document used by a minister to present his views to cabinet
  33. Record of Decision
    A formal document recording the final and official decisions of cabinet
  34. Privy Council Office PCO
    Is the apex of the civil service and the office responsible for coordinating the actions of government and supporting the Prime Minister
  35. Clerk of the Privy Council Office
    The top civil servant in the country. This person is also the deputy minister to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the cabinet.
  36. Prime Minister's Office PMO
    An office made up of the Prime Minister's top political staff. It provides the Prime Minister with partisan political support, unlike the Privy Council Office, which provides non-partisan support. Each Prime Minister brings in his or her own staff and the leave with him or her.
  37. Chief of staff
    The head of the Prime Minister's Office and the principal advisor to the Prime Minister. This person provides partisan advice to the Prime Minister, unlike the Clerk of the Privy Council
  38. Opposition critics
    Selected by the leader of the official opposition party to critique the work of particular government ministers. Collectively, the they are known as The Shadow Cabinet.
  39. Shadow cabinet
    Opposite the government in the House of Commons in hole the cabinet accountable. This includes the leader of the official opposition party and its critics who are appointed by the leader of the official opposition
  40. Legislation
    The formal process by which laws are enacted
  41. Speaker
    The person who moderates legislative debates. In Canada, the this person is an elected Member of Parliament who in turn is elected by the other members to be the speaker. There is also one in the Senate.
  42. Usher of the black rod
    The chief ceremonial officer of the Senate. The sergeant at arms is the chief ceremonial officer in the House of Commons.
  43. Bill
    A proposed new law. When it is finally passed by Parliament, it becomes known as an act.
  44. Act
    A statutory law of Parliament
  45. First reading
    The stage when a bill is introduced in Parliament and numbered. Bills introduced in the House of Commons begin with the prefix C followed by a number, it was introduced in the Senate begin with the prefix S followed by a member
  46. Act
    A statutory law of Parliament
  47. Second reading
    The stage of the legislative process when the bill is debated in principle.
  48. Committee stage
    This stage of the legislative process when a bill is sent to a subcommittee of the House of Commons for detailed examination.
  49. Standing Committee
    Permanent committees that examine legislation in detail and consider other policy questions. There are approximately 26 of these in the House of Commons, one for each ministry.
  50. Report stage
    The stage of the legislative process when the standing committee reports back to the House of Commons on its deliberations about a bill.
  51. Third reading
    The stage of the legislative process when the bill is once again debated in principle and voted on in it entirety.
  52. Royal Assent
    The final stage in the legislative process, with a bill that has been passed in both the House of Commons and the Senate goes to the governor-general for Proclamation.
  53. Public bills
    Bills that establish law for the whole of Canadian society. Most bills passed by Parliament are public bills
  54. Private bills
    Bills that are past for specific individuals, groups, or entities, such as the incorporation of a new bank.
  55. Government bills
    Bills that are supported by the Cabinet and introduced by the responsible minister.
  56. Private Members bills
    Bills that are introduced by the private members of the House of Commons, that is, all members who are not part of the government (who are not cabinet ministers or ministers of state)
  57. Money bills
    Bills that allowed the government to collect taxes and spend revenues. In Canada system of parliamentary government, money bills are by definition matters of confidence.
  58. Non money bills
    Bills that entail all matters of legislation except the reason of taxes or the spending of revenue.
  59. Supply bills
    Bills that authorize the spending of money by the government
  60. Ways and means bills
    Bills that enable the government to collect taxes
  61. Budget
    The government's annual plan for raising revenue and spending revenue. It is the most important money bill of the year and by definition is a matter of confidence. It is usually used in the spring.
  62. Interest groups
    Groups that represent particular interests in Canadian society and typically lobby or pressure the government for measures that benefit their members.
  63. Fiscal update
    An update on the government's budget situation that is given each fall by the Finance Minister. It may include new tax and spending measures.
  64. Official opposition
    The second largest party in Parliament gets its opposite the government in the House of Commons and hold it to account. Also known as her Majesty's Loyal Opposition.
  65. Question period. QP
    A 45 minute session held each day the House of Commons is in session in which members of parliament can ask the government questions and hold it to account.
  66. Officers or agents of Parliament
    Independent watch dogs, such as the Auditor General who reports to Parliament on the activities of the government.
  67. Party discipline
    The expectation that members of a party in parliament will follow the directions of their leader
  68. Whip
    An individual appointed by a leader to be responsible for party discipline
  69. Free votes
    Votes in parliament in which members of a party may vote according to their conscience rather than having to follow the direction of the leader or whip.
  70. Patronage
    The awarding of government perks and benefits by the Prime Minister to his or her supporters
  71. Triple E Senate
    An idea promoted by conservatives in Western Canada to make the Senate of Canada and elected chamber with an equal number of representatives from each province, with the hope of creating a more effective counterbalance to the House of Commons.

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Poli 110 - Into to Canadian Politics - Ch. 5 - 6
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2016-12-02 02:56:23
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Poli 110 Into Canadian Politics
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Poli 110 - Into to Canadian Politics - Ch. 5 - 6.txt
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