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What was Human Rights founded in? (2)
- 1. Human rights were founded in the belief that all humans share natural rights that are an essential component of their humanity
- 2. They have legal foundation in natural law. these are moral standards which have an obligation to be upheld regardless of race
Why are human rights so contested?
Because there are different definitions based on various cultural and religious beliefs and practices
What are charter rights?
The rates written within the Constitution that protects human rights
What are the three generations of Rights?
- 1. First generation our political and civil rights
- 2. Second generation are economic and cultural rights
- 3. 3rd generation are collective or group rights
What are the two parts of human security?
- 1. Safety - from chronic threats such as hunger, disease and repression
- 2. Protection - from sudden and hurtful disruptions in the daily lives of people, whether in homes, jobs or communities. it is a concern with human life and dignity
what is the difference between the Cold War and the post-cold war periods in regards to human security?
- During the Cold War, 80% of violent deaths were soldiers.
- During the post Cold War era, 80 percent of deaths were civilians
What is the difference between human security and state security?
Human security focuses on the protection of people rather than the protection of states under traditional security
What is the significance of HDI?
The Human Development Index is a better indication of progress than GDP, because GDP doesn't indicate whether growth is having an impact on the lives of people within the state. human Development Index for example, can tell if life expectancy is improving or not whereas GDP does not.
How is human security linked to human rights?
Human security is linked to human rights in the sense that it highlights the freedom that people should enjoy in their daily lives.
What is the purpose of the UNDP? (2)
- 1. To think about human security and how states can prevent wars and protect human security.
- 2. The United Nations Development Program provides expert advice, training and grant support for developing countries with an emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries.
list 6 issues that fall under the category of human security?
- 1. Food security
- 2. Health security
- 3. Environmental security how degradation of the environment impact health around the world
- 4. Personal security - the protection against rape and torture for example
- 5. Economic security
- 6. Community security - protecting families, culture and racial and ethnic groups
What are three elements of human security
- 1. It focuses on individuals as the object of security instead of the state
- 2. focuses on the multidimensionality of threats. example health, environment, education etc
- 3. It is universal and global in scope
What are five developments that have led to an increasing emphasis on human security rather than state security?
- 1. The rejection of GDP as a good indicator and the rise of HDI as a better indicator
- 2. the rising incidence of internal conflict after the Cold War such as Rwanda and Kosovo
- 3. Increasing transnational dangers such as environmental degradation and human trafficking
- 4. Emphasis on human rights and humanitarian intervention after the Cold War
- 5. Rising economic interdependence
What is the difference between the Canadian approach to human security and the Japanese approach to human security?
- Canadian approach - freedom from fear: is the protection of people from personal threats. example is supporting programs to reintegrate combatants back into society and the treaty on land mines. Peacekeeping
- Japanese approach - freedom from want: To protect people from violent and non violent threats. Protects from poverty.
What are for continuing and new forms of violence that threaten human security today?
- 1. Rise of civilian deaths since the Cold War
- 2. Genocide
- 3. violence in failed and failing states
- 4. Terrorism
What are three distinct institutions that Canada has helped to create in the pursuit of human security?
- 1. The 1997 Ottawa Treaty against antipersonnel landmines
- 2. The 2001 responsibility to protect
- 3. The July 1st 2002 International Criminal Court: Canadian Philip was the first president
What were the two institutions thats predated the ICC?
- 1. The International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
- 2. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
- - these two were established by the Security Council for specific states
Describe the role of the ICC
An international court meant as a last resort to try individuals for war crimes and genocide when a state is not able or willing to put these individuals on trial themselves.
What is the Rome Statute?
The Rome Statute is the treaty that established the International Criminal Court in July 1998 and it entered into force on July 2002. The United States has yet to ratify this Agreement
What is an example of the ICC failing to prosecute a war criminal?
2005: crimes in Darfur Sudan were 300,000 people were killed Omar al-bashir was indicted for war crimes but he is yet to be brought to the ICC
What are the three parts to r2p?
- 1. Responsibility to prevent: people must have access to food and basic means of survival
- 2. Responsibility to protect: when genocide and crimes against humanity are happening and the state involved is unable or unwilling to intervene.
- 3. Responsibility to rebuild: when states have intervened they have a responsibility to reconstruct what they have destroyed
When a state fails to protect its citizens, r2p can be used for the for following abuses
- 1. War crimes
- 2. Crimes against humanity
- 3. Genocide
- 4. Ethnic cleansing
what are the two events that led to the implementation of R2P?
- 1. At the World Summit in 2005 the General Assembly accepted a document concerning r2p
- 2. On April 28 2006 UN Security Council resolution to protect citizens in armed conflict was passed
- SC Res 1674
What are three criticisms concerning human security?
- 1. The concept of human security is too broad for any analytical or policy terms
- 2. the concept of human security creates false expectations for the victims
- 3. Human security weakens the state and neglect the relevance of the state
What are three questions that need to be answered when moving forward on issues of human security?
- 1. Is human security freedom from fear or freedom from want?
- 2. Is it protection from physical threats or non violent threats?
- 3. Should we prioritize protecting from violence or protecting from poverty?
What is human security in a nutshell 2 points
- 1. Human security is an analytical lens to investigate new and emerging threats in the global arena
- 2. human security broadens and deepens traditional security studies
What are two road blocks to the effectiveness of the ICC?
- 1. The United States will not submit itself to the same scrutiny as other countries therefore it has not ratified the Rome Statute
- 2. Every case in the ICC has been an African case but it has not investigate cases in other places
Name one case in which there R2P has been used?
2011 Libya, SC Res 1973 gave NATO the ability to intervene.