Poli 260 - Global politics 8 - Development
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What is poverty?
A situation where people are not able to meet their material and nonmaterial needs.
How do globalist view poverty? (2)
1. Globalists believe that promoting free trade will have a trickle down effect to those living in developing countries.
2. they say that living conditions have improved since the 1950's and equality in income between the fifties and seventies has improved but there has been a gap developing since the 1990s.
income inequality between the North and the South is widening
What is the traditional view of development? (2)
1. Development has traditionally been measured as growth in a country's GDP.
2. It looks at the economic per capita income. the solution to poverty is to promote economic development.
what is an alternative view to development? (3)
1. Development is not just about GDP. There is a limitation to using GDP as a measurement of development.
2. development is the use of more efficient resources and the distribution of wealth
3. Instead of looking at GDP, we need to look at how wealth is distributed within a country
What does the UNDP say about development?
It says that we need economic growth, but it is insufficient for development. We need to look at the quality of growth not just the quantity of growth.
What is the g77?
A group of countries formed in 1964 to promote a new economic order of developing countries in order to lobby for their interests.
What was the target set by the United Nations in 1970 to help developing countries?
That developed countries would set aside 0.7% of their GDP to help developing countries. At its peak Canada only contributed 0.5%. Now it contributes 0.32%
What was the Washington Consensus?
Developing countries were required to cut government expenditure in order to pay back their loans from the seventies and eighties to the IMF and the World Bank
What are PRSP's?
- Poverty reduction strategy papers:
- Are documents required by the IMF and the World Bank before a country can be considered for relief. PRSPs are meant to be country driven and involve close consultation with the population.
- this is in sharp contrast to the Washington Consensus where poor countries had to adopt austerity measures.
What are the 8 Millennium Development Goals (MDG's)?
- 1. Eradicate poverty and hunger
- 2. Achieve universal primary education
- 3. Gender equality
- 4. Reduce child mortality by two thirds
- 5. Improve maternal health
- 6. Reduce HIV and malaria and other diseases
- 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
- 8. Building global partnership
How many people in developing countries have access to the Internet?
Only one in six people in the developing world have access to the Internet
Have you finished the documentary give us the money yet?
What are international regimes? (3)
- 1. They are an instrument of global governance
- 2. International regimes are a set of implicit and explicit principles, norms and rules around which actors expectations converge in a given area of international relations
- 3. They are bodies of rules that help states manage the uncertainty that comes from a lack of global governance
What are three types of international regimes? Give an example of each
- 1. Security regimes: Nuclear Non proliferation treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, Ottawa treaty on land mines
- 2. Economic regimes: NAFTA
- 3. Environmental regimes: Kyoto Protocol of 1997, UNFCCC,
What is global governance? (3)
1. A movement towards political integration of transnational actors aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region.
2. Regulatory arrangements are put in place, that results from diverse interaction on diverse issues involving States and non-state actors.
3. global governance is not a singular system like a world government, but consists of many different regimes of global governance. (International regimes)
What is an example of international and transnational global governance?
- International: creation of UN to reduce war
- transnational: preventing environmental challenges
International happens within borders and transnational happens across borders
What is INTERPOL?
The International Criminal Police organization.
- An example of global governance
- An intergovermental organisation which facilitates international police cooperation.
What are the five drivers of global governance?
- 1. Power
- 2. Material interest - States want to create jobs
- 3. Ideas - includes new norms and rules like the formation of the ICC and the Rome Statute of 1998
- 4. International organizations - they try to transform the rules from which they play. the EU hope to drive global governance
- 5. International institutions, rules and norms
Why would States choose to increase global governance? (4)
- 1. States have a strong incentive to free themselves from the uncertainty of anarchy in the international system
- 2. The face common coordination in collaboration problems so they create international institutions
- 3 . The end of imperialism and the insufficiency of the balance of power encourages global governance
- 4. The scope and volume of global issues are expanding and becoming more complex and interrelated
What are three types of institutions created for global governance?
- 1. Constitutional institutions: UN Charter
- 2. Issue specific institutions or regimes
- 3. Fundamental institutions: international law, multilateralism which is the cooperation between three or more states
What are norm entrepeneurs?
NGOs which helped to shape norms. NGOs and individuals have played an increasing role in shaping global norms. R2p was established because of NGOs experiences who had helped to establish this norm by lobbying activities
How is global governance moving towards supranational law? (4)
- 1. Global governance is pushing international law into new areas. ICC for example
- 2. Non-state actors are affecting the development and codification of legal norms. Example the Red Cross helps to create the ICC
- 3. International law increasingly effects domestic law and practices. example Canadian terrorism laws
- 4. Issues of global justice interfere with international order. Example states have an increasing responsibility to protect human rights
What are the challenges of global governance? (7)
- 1. The activities of the United Nations have expanded but there is lack of reform especially in the UN Security Council
- 2. there are problems with authority on intervention. Who gets to decide on who intervenes?
- 3. Some autonomous organizations like Isis don't follow the laws whereas States do Some groups like MNC's do when it suits their interests
- 4. There is disagreement on what constitutes human rights.and if they are culturally specific?
- 5. There is no international legislative process to change laws, and the Security Council is not representative
- 6. The challenge of westernization of global governance
- 7. The accountability of non-state actors. Who do NGOs represent?
When did environmentalism begin to grow in importance?
1962 Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring about DDT which was used to control pests
what are environmental regimes?
One aspect of global governance that establishes key principles and norms to govern the global environment
What are three examples of environmental regimes?
- 1. No significant harm principal: a principle that any experiment should not have harmful effects to the environment
- 2. Pollutants pay principle: if a company like BP pollutes, they have to pay for it
- 3. Prior informed consent: the harm should be known before a project is launched. products should be labeled.
What are two broad environmental issues?
- 1. The current consumption rate is not sustainable
- 2. There are vast disparities between the rich and the poor in terms of consumption and ecological impact
What are the two traditional environmental concerns and three new concerns?
- 1. Conservation of resources
- 2. Pollution
- new concerns:
- 1. ozone layer depletion
- 2. Climate change and global warming
- 3. Declining fisheries
What were the three general conferences the UN has used to address the environment since 1972?
- 1. Stockholm conference: (1972) deliberated on how the environment is being destroyed by our activities
- 2. Earth Summit in Rio: (1992) established UNFCCC
- 3. Johannesburg: (2002) focused on sustainable development and vowed to restore the world's depleted fisheries by 2015
What was the most successful environmental regime?
The Vienna Convention for the protection of the ozone layer:
to eliminate HFC gases from refrigeration. the MNC's that use these gases were able to find alternative ways of refrigeration
What is the UNFCCC? (2)
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change:
- 1. International environmental treaty negotiated at the Earth Summit in Rio with the objective of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system
- 2. It created the Kyoto Protocol
What was the major issue with the Kyoto Protocol? Explain
Common but differentiated responsibilities.
it argued the states have different levels of responsibility based on their development. but the problem is that the emissions of these gases can affect all countries and can lead to the desert ification. China therefore since it was a developing country, did not need to contribute as much as developed countries would even though it is a large polluter
When was the Kyoto Protocol signed and when was it renewed?
- It was signed in 1997 and Canada was one of the main actors
- it was renewed in 2012 and Canada decided not to join
Describe 2 key environmental institutions?
- 1. UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme: an agency of the United Nations that coordinates its environmental activities and assists developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
- 2. IPCC - Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: a scientific intergovernmental body under the United Nations set up to produce scientific reports on climate change to the UNFCCC
What are 8 challenges facing environmentalism?
- 1. Common but differentiated responsibilities: China and US cannot agree
- 2. Lack of funds in developing countries 3. UNEP which is the only UN agency on the African continent does not have good relations with developed countries
- 4. There are power dynamics in international environmental policy. Who makes the rules and who enforces them?
- 5. Environmental justice: toxic colonization. most of the nuclear weapons tests took place in developing countries
- 6. There is still a debate on the degree and severity of global warming which impedes progress
- 7. The legally non binding nature of environmental law. It is soft law
- 8. State sovereignty and national security trump environmental issues
What is the next Conference on Climate Change?
Paris 2015: negotiation for a new legally binding agreement on climate change. in December 2015. It is expected to produce a legally binding agreement on climate change which is to be implemented in 2020
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